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Washington and Lee University

Washington and Lee University

George P. Carras

Senior Research Professor (classical studies, religion)

117 Baker Hall
(434) 409-1703

Current Affiliations

Fellow, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Charlottesville, Virginia, 2013-14

Research Associate and Associate Member, Ioannou Centre for Classical and Byzantine Studies, Faculty of Classics, University of Oxford, 2011-2014

Fellow and Scholar, CREOR (Centre for Research on Religion), Faculty of Religious Studies, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2007, 2011-12 (Fellow) and 2007-2014 (Scholar)




D.Phil. - Oxford - Oriental / Jewish Studies, Classical Studies, Religion
MA - Manchester - New Testament, Biblical/Literary Criticism
BA (Honors) - UC Berkeley - Classics, Ancient History, Religion, Jewish Studies
MA (Hon.) - Oxford - Biblical Studies, Theology


Classical Studies:
Flavius Josephus, Flavian Rome, Moral World of Antiquity, Plutarch, his World and the "Moralia", Josephus and Paul

The Jewish Paul; Lukan Studies, Intertextuality


Classical Studies:
Moral World of Antiquity (Greek, Roman, Jewish, early Christian), Epictetus - Life and Writings and other Stoics, The Religions of Antiquity, World of Judaism and Hellenism, Philo of Alexandria, Flavius Josephus

Inside Matthew's World, Luke - Acts: Legacies of Israel, Paul and the World of the Judaism,
The Moral Vision of the New Testament, Voices of Hellenistic Jewry - Philo, Josephus, Paul

Selected Publications (Classical Studies)


  • Two Diaspora Jews: Josephus and Paul - A Historical, Social and Theological Comparison of Hellenistic Jewry, (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums), Leiden: Brill, (in progress)
  • Paul, Josephus and Judaism: The Shared Judaism of Paul and Josephus (1990 mss, Oxford, digitized)


  • "Dependence, Paraphrase or Common Tradition in Philo's Hypothetica and Josephus' Contra Apionem," Studia Philonica Annual 5 (1993), 24-47
  • "Philo's Hypothetica - Josephus' Contra Apionem and the Question of Sources" in D. Lull (ed.), 1990 Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers, Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990, 431-450

Book Reviews:

  • Jan Bremmer and Marco Formisano,  Perpetua's Passions, Oxford University Press, 2012, RSR (forthcoming)
  • Thomas J. Heffernan, The Passion of Perpetua and Felicity, Oxford University Press, 2012, RSR (forthcoming)
  • Karl-Gustav Sandelin, Attraction and Danger of Alien Religion, (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 290) Mohr Siebeck, 2012, JSJ (forthcoming)\

Work in Progress:

  • "Pre-Rabbinic Echoes in Josephus - Diaspora Jewish Summary of the Law - Against Apion (AgAp) 2.190-219"
  • "Josephus' Intellectual Flavian Milieu - Pliny, Quintilian, Tacitus, Martial, Dio Chrysostom, Epictetus, and Plutarch? - Various Examples Exposed"
  • "Reading Josephus in a Roman Context - Against Apion 2.190-219 and Antiquities 3-4 Once More"
  • "Torah Observance in Diaspora Judaism & in Josephus, Philo, Pseudo Phocylides Sentences"

Selected Publications (Religion)


  • Putting Paul in his Place: Inheritor, Internal Critic and Transformer of Diaspora Judaism, Oxford University Press: New York, (in preparation)


  • "Observant Jews in the Story of Luke and Acts: Paul, Jesus and Other Jews" in J. Verheyden (ed.), The Unity of Luke-Acts, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1999, 693-708
  • "Luke and the OT: Intertextuality between Numbers 15.22-31 & Luke 23.34" in C.M. Tuckett (ed.), The Scriptures in the Gospels, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1997, 605-616
  • "Romans 2.1-29: A Dialogue on Jewish Ideals," Biblica 73 (1992), 183-207
  • "Jewish Ethics and Gentile Converts: Some Remarks on 1 Thess. 4.3-8" in R.F. Collins (ed.), The Thessalonian Correspondence, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1990, 306-315