WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY REGISTRATION
Changes to the 2008-2009 Catalog and Special Announcements for Winter Term 2009
(updated to )

For accurate and up-to-date information, please see "Recent Changes" and the course listing on the University Registrar's web page at http://registrar.wlu.edu/ .

by academic discipline:

Accounting Environmental studies Neuroscience
African-American Studies First-Year Seminars (FS) Philosophy
Anthropology French Physical Education
Art History Geology Physics
Art Studio German Politics
Biology Greek Portuguese
Business Administration History Poverty & Human Capability
Chemistry Interdepartmental  Psychology
Chinese Italian Public Speaking
Classics Japanese Religion
Computer Science Journalism & Mass Communication Russian
Dance Latin Russian Area Studies
East Asian studies Latin American and Caribbean Studies Sociology
East Asian Languages & Literatures Lit in Translation  Spanish
Economics Mathematics Theater
Education Medieval & Renaissance Studies University Scholars
Engineering Military Science/ROTC Women's Studies
English Music  

Accounting (ACCT)

African-American Studies (AFAM)

Anthropology (ANTH)

ANTH 290A (3) - Archaeology of Race and Class - topical description - No prerequisites. This course explores dynamics of race, ethnicity, social class, and interpersonal alliances through archaeological methods and theories. We consider a diverse array of theoretical approaches (including humanist, post-modern, feminist, and neo-Darwinian) and archaeological methods ranging from field survey to excavation methods and artifact analysis. How do archaeologists use these varied orientations and skills to investigate the formation of social classes and ethnic identities? What roles did the objects that survive archaeologically – including house foundations, ceramics, or personal objects such as buttons and beads – play in negotiations of social status? While readings and case studies draw on global prehistory, a key focus is race and social class in Virginia history. Bell

ANTH 290B (3) - Social Sciences & Religion - topical description - No prerequisites. Today scholars still debate the appropriate relationship between social science and religion, with the two most extreme positions assuming the impossibility of a social science of religion, on the one hand, and denial of the validity of religious claims, on the other. Beginning with an examination of the fundamental debates regarding the nature and goals of social scientific inquiry, we then examine classical and contemporary analyses of religion in psychology, sociology, and anthropology. The major social scientific paradigms – materialist, functionalist, and phenomenological – differ in their implications for understanding and explaining religious phenomena, and they provide the context for our consideration of questions of reductionism, explanation vs. understanding, insider vs. outsider orientations, and the nature and limits to truth-claims made both by social scientists and religious devotees and scholars. Markowitz

ANTH 290C (3) - Psychological Anthropology - topical description - No prerequisites. This seminar introduces students to the history, theoretical orientations, and methodologies of psychological anthropology, the subfield of cultural anthropology that examines the relationship between culture and the individual. Among the questions the seminar addresses are: what is the relationship between universal human nature and cultural plurality? how does a society’s cultural traditions and processes shape the personality development of its members? what are some of the major findings that cross-cultural studies of cognition and thought processes have yielded? how do a variety of non-western peoples understand such psychological phenomena as the emotions, dreams, and mental illness? Markowitz.

Art History (ARTH)

ARTH 380A (3) - Arts of Colonial Latin America - topical description - This lecture course surveys the art and architecture of Latin America, ranging from Argentina to the United States from the 16th through early-18th centuries. The course begins with an exploration of the art of Mesoamerica and the Andes before the arrival of Europeans, including the Maya, Aztec, and Inca. Students then explore the cultural convergence that resulted from the conquest in the 16th century, focusing on the role of indigenous artists and traditions in the formation of early colonial culture. We trace the development of colonial arts, considering the role of civil and religious patronage, the rise of the art guilds, the international makeup of European cultures in the Americas, and the relationship with the arts of Spain and Portugal. Later lectures consider the rise of nationalism in the 17th and 18th centuries and its effect on the arts, including the revival of indigenous forms by the independence movements in regions that would later become Peru and Mexico. (HA, GE4a) Lepage

ARTH 380B (3) - Caravaggio and Artemisia Gentileschi
- topical description - This seminar focuses on the work of two of the best known painters of the Baroque period, Michelangelo Merisi, or Caravaggio (1573-1610), and Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c. 1653). We explore Caravaggio's intense naturalism and the controversy it caused, his sense of drama and supernatural light, and the role of his personality in the study of his works of art. Gentileschi was deeply influenced by Caravaggio but developed her own unique style. Seminar themes include the 1612 rape trial and its impact on Gentileschi’s career, issues of attribution, proto-feminism, Gentileschi’s unique treatment of the female form and female heroes, and role of Gentileschi’s biography in the study of her works of art. One goal of this course is to look at the ways in which both artists have been interpreted and what these approaches tell us about their work and the field of art history itself. (HA, GE4a) Lepage

Art Studio (ARTS)

ARTS 297 (3) - Special Topics in Studio Art - topical description - Prerequisite: ARTS 121 and permission of the instructor. Preparatory class for ARTS 223, Drawing Italy, in Spring 2009. Introduction to the use of pastel, watercolor, and acrylic. Subject matter includes still-life, landscape, and nonobjective conceptual problems. Lab fee required. (HA, GE4a) Olson-Janjic

Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 111A (3) - Fundamentals of Biology: Biodiversity - topical description - Corequisite: Biology 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This course focuses on evolution, extinction, and conservation of biodiversity. We examine the genetic and evolutionary sources of biological diversity, causes of extinction, and conservation strategies for preserving what remains. (SL or GE5A with Biology 113) Knox

BIOL 111B(3) - Fundamentals of Biology: Disease Ecology - topical description - Corequisite: Biology 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This course focuses on the population biology of parasites from the genetic to the macro-evolutionary level. We examine the structure and diversity of disease organisms, the impacts of disease on their hosts, and the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of disease spread. Case studies focus on diseases of current importance including avian influenza, malaria, HIV, and amphibian chytridiomycosis. (SL or GE5A with Biology 113) Marsh

BIOL 295A (1) - Topics in Biology: Stream Restoration Ecology - topical description - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113 and either junior standing or departmental permission. In recent decades, an increasing emphasis has been placed on restoring aquatic ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic impacts. This course examines the ecological fundamentals underlying restoration of streams and rivers. We consider how physical characteristics of streams influence the biotic community and the overall health of these ecosystems. In particular, we look at how land-use changes in the watershed can affect in-stream dynamics of these systems. A local stream restoration project allows for placing these ideas in context and examining the functional ecology underlying contemporary restoration practice. Humston

BIOL 295B (1) - Topics in Biology: Mammalian reproductive strategies - topical description - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113 and either junior standing or departmental permission. This seminar course studies the social and environmental influences on reproduction in mammals. Students read, present, and discuss papers on a variety of topics, such as social interactions and reproduction, metabolic fuels and reproduction, photoperiodic timing of reproduction in seasonal breeders, the role of pheromones in inhibiting and stimulating reproduction. I'Anson

BIOL 295C (1) - Topics in Biology: Yellowstone Ecology - topical description - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113 and either junior standing or departmental permission. This course examines the interactions of microbes, plants and animals in the world's oldest national park. Through weekly readings, discussions, presentations and written works, we cover topics including soil microbes, grazing, fire, predators, and ecosystem function. Hamilton

BIOL 295D (1) - Topics in Biology: The Cancer Problem - topical description - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113 and either junior standing or departmental permission. An exploration of the nature of neoplastic disease and its epidemiological, biological and psychological correlates. Student presentations of selected cancer literature, discussion based learning and a term paper on a topic important to the student. Wielgus

BIOL 295E (1) - Topics in Biology: Cell Signaling and Communication - topical description - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113 and either junior standing or departmental permission. This course examines how cells receive, process, and respond to information from the environment. Signal transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of stimuli. Topics include signal transduction cascades that underlie cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We examine how errors in these signal transduction cascades can lead to diseases such as cancer. Watson

Business Administration (BUS)

BUS 302 (3) - Seminar in Finance: Financial Derivatives - topical description - Prerequisite: BUS 221 or permission of the instructor. This class provides students with an overview of the characteristics and uses of financial derivatives. Derivatives are assets which derive their value from another asset such as a stocks or commodity. Options, futures, and swaps are examples of derivatives. Understanding of this material is critical to students planning to work in Finance after graduation. Schwartz

BUS 303 (3) - Seminar in Marketing: Market Research - topical description - Prerequisite: BUS 211. This course is structured around a market research project. Students learn to define a decision problem, derive research objectives, design sampling plans, design instruments for data collection, analyze data, and report results. The project includes both qualitative methods (such as focus groups) and quantitative methods (such as surveys and analysis using the SPSS statistical package). Simmons

BUS 305A (3) - Seminar in International Business: Globalization - topical description - This seminar focuses on economic globalization and how it has affected business. Several specific topics we analyze are the ingredients of economic globalization, namely, the movement of product, capital, and labor across nation-state borders; the impact on growth in developing countries, on poverty, and on the environment; and the relationship between globalization and business. The course begins with a historical perspective of globalization from the late 19th century and continue to the present. We then focus on the present period and try to understand and analyze the arguments for and against globalization, the costs and benefits, and the winners and losers of globalization. We discuss various scholarly proposals on reducing costs and increasing benefits of this phenomenon, and we analyze the relationship between globalization and business and the role corporations have in mitigating the negative effects and promoting the positive effects of globalization. Students with the opportunity to strengthen their analytical and communication skills and to conduct independent research on a foreign country and corporation that is closely entwined in the issues of globalization. This course satisfies the international requirement in the business administration major. Reiter

BUS 305B (3) - Seminar in International Business and Sustainability - topical description - This course explores sustainability from a business perspective through readings, discussions, and cases from American and European companies. The sustainability agenda covers not only climate change and environmental issues but also social issues such as human rights and child labour. The course addresses how companies can work with sustainability in a way that makes business sense and take both risks and opportunities into account. Students gain an understanding of how to work with sustainability strategies, policies, implementation, reporting and communication, and become familiar with key concepts within sustainability such as the UN Global Compact UNGC), Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI), Global Reporting initiative (GRI), and the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes. Case studies include, for example, Walmart (US), Starbucks (US), Nike (US), Marks & Spencer (UK), Tesco (UK), IKEA (SE), Novo Nordisk (DK), Novozymes (DK), TNT (NL) , Shell (NL), and more. Besides case studies, several examples of how business work with sustainability are included. This course satisfies the international requirement in the business administration major. Christiansen

Chemistry (CHEM)

CHEM 295A (1) - Roots of Medicine - topical description - This course consider aspects of how current medical practices throughout the world have evolved from ancient origins. By tracing the development of medical knowledge in China, India, Greece, Rome, and, later, Europe and America, we consider the highpoints of medical history in various cultures and how these advances lead to the variety of healing arts practiced today. In addition to modern biomedicine (as typified by the allopathic/osteopathic practices in the United States), we examine how alternative medicines, such as Ayurveda and homeopathy, are actually used throughout the world. In all cases, we analyze the legitimacy, usefulness, and coexistence of different approaches to healing with an eye toward the central question of "What does it mean to be well?" Desjardins

CHEM 295B (1) - Culinary Chemistry - topical description - Pass/Fail only. Prerequisite: CHEM 241. An introduction to the important food molecules and an investigation of cooking processes presented at the molecular level. Chemical reactivity as it relates to cooking, food preservation, and spoilage IS discussed. Pleva, France

Chinese (CHIN)

Classics (CLAS)

CLAS 295 (3) - City of Athens:Archaeology, Culture, and Society - topical description - In antiquity, Athens was a cultural capital whose achievements continue to influence western culture. In this course, students study Athens from a number of viewpoints, with the ultimate goal of understanding both the physical city and its monuments and the culture and daily life of its inhabitants. We survey the important monuments of Athens in each period (from the Late Bronze Age to the Roman period), but we will also pay close attention to the daily life of its inhabitants. To this end we will consider a wide range of evidence including urbanism, architecture, sculpture, painting, religion and ritual, language, society as well as Athenian institutions and the economy. Evaluation is based on a quiz, memos based on the readings, a midterm, a final, a response paper and a term paper. (HU) Becker

Computer Science (CSCI)

Dance (DANC)

East Asian Languages and Literatures (EALL)

East Asian Studies (EAS)

Economics (ECON)

ECON 295A (3) - Health Economics in Developing Countries - topical description - Prerequisites: Economics 101. A survey of the major issues of health economics, with a focus on developing countries. Economic modeling of health related issues, supply and demand of health, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health goals and policy alternatives. Health and education. Health and the labor market, for example relationship between child labor and child health. Epidemiology: HIV/AIDS in Africa. Selected case studies. Blunch

ECON 295B (3) - Economics of The Middle East - topical description - Prerequisites: Econ 101, 102 and sophomore standing. This course is the study of several topics related to the economies of Middle Eastern countries. Topics include but are not limited to the economic history of the region, economic growth, the oil industry and OPEC (the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), Dutch disease, population, and globalization. With focus on selected countries, the tools of economic analysis are applied to provide insight into the problems of the region. Students write a research paper on a topic and a country of their choice related to the course theme. Ghandi

Education (EDUC)

Engineering (ENGN)

English (ENGL)

ENGL 105A (3) - Composition and Literature: Justice and Character - topical description - A study of literary texts which explore justice as a virtue of character, as the means by which the state apportions goods and punishments, and as the way people seek a good life for themselves and their communities. Some genres: courtroom drama (Shakespeare, modern authors), detective fiction (P.D. James), anti-police state novel (Nadine Gordimer). (FW, GE1) Craun

ENGL 105B (3) - Composition and Literature: I See Dead People - topical description - The course focuses on literary representations of spirits and the afterlife. Texts may include: Henry James, The Turn of the Screw; A. S. Byatt, The Conjugal Angel; W. P. Kinsella, Shoeless Joe; Jean-Paul Sartre, No Exit; Thornton Wilder, Our Town; Toni Morrison, Beloved. (FW, GE1) Gavaler

ENGL 105C (3) - Composition and Literature: Wicked Women - topical description - This section begins with Chaucer's Wife of Bath and ends with recent essays on Hillary Clinton. We look at witchcraft, femme fatales, and prostitutes as a way of considering literary approaches towards women and men's power and sexuality. The course is not for women only - for instance, our discussion of witchcraft and wizardry runs from Miller's The Crucible through excerpts from Harry Potter. (FW, GE1) Brodie

ENGL 105D (3) - Composition and Literature: Mysteries, Puzzles, and Conundrums - topical description - We concern ourselves with mysteries, not in the generic sense of stories about crime and detection, but mysteries of character, morality, religion, and art. Central to each of the works we read is some puzzle, secret, riddle, enigma, ambiguity, or complexity. (Sometimes the work itself is the mystery, a kind of hieroglyph.) Each work, in its own way, raises questions about the methods and the limitations of human discovery. (FW, GE1) Oliver

ENGL 105E (3) - Composition and Literature: Americans Abroad - topical description - Tourists, expatriates, soldiers, students, and workers - Americans travel, work, and live all over the world. From the beginning of our national history right up to the present day, Americans have ventured forth all over the globe, and we attend to both chronological and geographical concerns as we read narratives about the American abroad. In this course, we focus on fiction and non-fiction describing the experiences of Americans abroad because Americans who travel and/or live outside of the U.S. have a special relationship as both insiders and outsiders to their home country. We also consider the circumstances of the American abroad; for instance, some Americans travel for recreation, others travel to visit family, and still others travel because their job requires them to do so. What can these narratives tell us about the construction of cultural and national identities? What can they tell us about the position of the U.S. in a global context? What sorts of global and local issues, as well as political and personal issues, are highlighted when one spends time abroad? While reading a wide range of texts, we reflect on and debate these issues and questions. The two main goals of this course - the development of strong and effective critical reading and writing skills - are complementary endeavors. (FW, GE1) Hall

ENGL 105F (3) - Composition and Literature: Transformation and Metamorphosis - topical description -In this writing course, we read poems, plays, stories, and novels that focus on characters who slowly or suddenly change - from human to animal or vice versa, from female to male and back, from one race to another. What sorts of events spur or enable metamorphosis? What is the relation between identity and physical form? What is left of the original when someone radically changes? As we consider such questions in relation to this literature, we also relate them to writing (e.g., how many shapes can the same idea take?) and practice transforming essays through careful revision. Readings include works by Ovid, Shakespeare, Kafka, James Weldon Johnson, David Henry Hwang. (FW, GE1) Braunschneider

ENGL 105G (3) - Composition and Literature: Imagining Childhood - topical description - Childhood has not always meant what we tend to think it means, and writers over the last two centuries have in some sense invented our assumption that it is a unique stage of innocence and play. In this class we discuss a range of literary texts that invent and revise our ideas of childhood - in terms not only of childhood's conceptual relationship to innocence but also its strong, if counterintuitive, connection to more difficult topics, such as sexuality and death. Our texts include William Blake's Songs of Innocence and Experience, Henry James' The Turn of the Screw, Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, Phillip Pullman's The Golden Compass, among many others. Requirements include intensive writing (multiple essays, revisions, and other exercises), regular critical evaluation of the writing of fellow students, and active class participation. (FW, GE1) Matthews

ENGL 105H (3) - Composition and Literature: The Country and the City - topical description - In this course we read literary works that explore ideas about place. What makes a place significant? How does place function in creating personal and communal identities? How do representations of place change according to historical and linguistic contexts? We read works in a variety of genres, periods, and national traditions. Some representative writers could include Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Whitman, Dickinson, Bishop, Linda Hogan, Tom Stoppard, Aldo Leopold, Barry Lopez, Rick Bass, and Pattiann Rogers. (FW, GE1) Warren

ENGL 105I (3) - Composition and Literature: Faith, Doubt, and Identity - topical description - What is belief and how does it shape a person's selfhood? How does being a part of a religious community, or a variety of religious communities, shape one's identity? We explore these questions through fiction and autobiography about lives of faith (and doubt). Possible texts include Augustine's Confessions, often thought of as the first autobiography; selections from C.S. Lewis' Mere Christianity; Elie Wiesel's Night; Ron Hansen's Mariette in Ecstasy, a novel about a stigmatic nun; Adrienne Rich's "Split at the Root," an essay on Jewish feminist identity; James Wood's novel, The Book Against God, on a philosophy student's repudiation of his father's Christianity; and Leila Ahmed's A Border Passage, an autobiography by a contemporary Harvard Divinity School professor who grew up in an Egyptian Muslim family. (FW, GE1) Gertz

ENGL 105J (3) - Composition and Literature: Gossips and Cons - topical description - This course explores literary representations of two prominent social discourses: gossiping and conning. Through critical reading, collaborative learning, and argumentative writing, we explore diverse characterizations of the gossip and the con artist in a variety of genres and texts, ranging from Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing to F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby. We analyze the various schemes and rhetorical strategies that gossips and cons employ in their texts to exert social influence, their understanding and manipulation of the status quo, their motivations and rewards, and their efforts upon both the individual and the larger community. To further our practice of sound argumentative writing, we juxtapose the discourses of gossip and con artistry with our own modes for persuading readers. In addition, we think critically about our personal susceptibility to the influences of the gossip and the con as well as our inclinations to (sometimes?) play their roles. (FW, GE1) Wall

ENGL 291 (3) - Seminar: Law and Literature - topical description - Prerequisite: Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement. We examine how Early British narratives and plays explore crucial cultural issues posed by English law in the formative stages of the Anglo-American legal system. What are the purposes and functions of law? What does each kind of law - folklaw, common law, Roman law, statute law, ecclesiastical law - offer society and what are its drawbacks? What are the limits of law in governing human actions? In what circumstances is trust-based honor preferable to law? Are laws always binding? How should society deal with conflicts between the letter of the law and the intention of the lawgiver? What social forces are likely to corrupt legal processes and how should resulting injustices be righted? (HL,GE3) Craun

ENGL 292A (3) - Arthurian Legend - topical description - Prerequisite: Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement. Surveys the origins and development of the legend of King Arthur, one of the most enduring traditions in Western literature. Readings commence with early Latin chronicles and Celtic sources before progressing to later medieval adaptations by Chrétien de Troyes, Marie de France, and Thomas Malory. Central characters and icons as Lancelot, Guinevere, the Round Table, and the Grail are studied in light of moral, political, and theological questions. The semester concludes with Tennyson's Idylls of the King and the place of Arthur's Camelot in Victorian England. All foreign language and most medieval texts will be read in modern English translation. (HL,GE3) Jirsa

ENGL 292B (3) - Revolution and Romanticism - topical description - Prerequisite: Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement. Wordsworth and Byron, Austen and Scott, Napoleon, Frankenstein, Elia, Elizabeth Bennet, and the Ancient Mariner - why did so many major poets, novelists, monsters, heroines, and heroes suddenly appear in the aftermath of the French Revolution? Through important poems, novels, essays, and dramas, this course introduces students to the cultural phenomenon known as Romanticism with special attention to the historical, political, and economic factors underlying the burst of artistic creativity and invention in the decades after the momentous events of 1789. (HL,GE3) Adams

ENGL 292C (3) - A Comic Novel Sequence: Powell's A Dance to the Music of Time - topical description - Prerequisite: Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement. To be young and Bohemian during the social whirl of the 1920s; to witness the ominous rise of fascism; to serve in Britain's war against Nazi Germany; to pursue careers in writing, arts, journalism, politics, and high society while a nation reinvents itself; to look on in amusement and horror at the trippy excesses of the 1960s, from Swinging London to the English version of the Summer of Love: Anthony Powell's comic masterpiece, A Dance to the Music of Time, covers the whole panorama from the perspective of his protagonist Nick Jenkins. This seminar centers on novel reading, but British poetry, art, fashion, politics, economics, and history of the half-century from 1921 through 1971 are liberally mixed into our discussions and into students' seminar papers. (HL,GE3) Keen

ENGL 299A (3) - Seminar for Prospective Majors: American Indian Literatures and U.S. History: The Storytellers Write Back - topical description - Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement and at least one course chosen from English courses numbered from 230 to 291. "History is written by the victors. Literature is written by the survivors." For most of U.S. History, the voices and testimonies of Native American writers have been absent, silenced, or erased from our textbooks and cultural mythology. With few exceptions, non-natives usually told the story of being Indian in America. With the start of the Native American Literary Renaissance in the late 1960's, however, Indian writers have been using fiction, memoir, poetry, creative non-fiction, film-making and music to re-write U.S. History from a Native point of view. This course examines specific Native American texts to see how Indians present that re-visioning, how it is translated from various sources into literature, and the effectiveness it has in helping U.S. citizens re-imagine ourselves in contemporary times. (HL,GE3) Miranda

ENGL 299B (3) - Seminar for Prospective Majors: The Shelleys - topical description - Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement and at least one course chosen from English courses numbered from 230 to 291. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin and Percy Bysshe Shelley produced some of the essential texts of second-generation Romanticism. They were also celebrities, and their private lives dramatized the principles and anxieties of the Romantic era. In this class we study Mary and Percy's literary production side by side, in biographical and cultural context; readings include a selection of Mary novels (Frankenstein, Mathilda, The Last Man), a wide selection of Percy's poetry and critical prose, and selections from journals and letters. This seminar is a gateway to the major, designed to train students in the reading, writing, and research skills necessary for English majors; to this end, students engage with critical and theoretical readings to develop a sophisticated approach to literary scholarship, and each student develops a major seminar paper on a topic relevant to the course. (HL,GE3) Matthews

ENGL 311 (3) - Advanced Seminar: History of the English Language - topical description - Prerequisite: Six credits in English. Why do we say brought not brang? Why is children the plural of child or feet the plural of foot? What happened to the pronoun thou? How did the printing press change spoken language? This course pursues these and other questions by exploring of the linguistic history of the English language from its early Germanic origins through its present-day proliferation into World English(es). Particular attention is devoted to the internal development of English (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, graphics, and vocabulary) in the medieval and early modern periods. Coursework includes reading texts and facsimiles from a variety of historical periods and provenances and also exploring the linguistic, social, cultural, and historical forces that induce language change. No prior knowledge of foreign languages or linguistics required or expected. Jirsa

ENGL 380 (3) - Advanced Seminar: Southern Fiction Then and Now - topical description - Prerequisite six credits in English. In this seminar, students read multiple works by four leading fiction writers to study changes in the American South and its literary expressions from the Southern Renaissance to the present day. The authors are William Faulkner, Eudora Welty, Cormac McCarthy, and Lee Smith. Their work allows us to focus on such topics as race, class, gender, family, honor, violence, and history to see if the South can remain a distinctive region and life experience in the global village and the post-modern world. (HL, GE3) Smout

ENGL 413A (3) - Senior Research and Writing: Epic and Violence on the Screen - topical description - Prerequisite: Six credits in English at the 300-level. A study of the history and theory of one of literature and art's dominant forms with particular attention to the aesthetic and ethical debates surrounding graphic violence. Because epic seems drawn to experimenting with longer, even gigantic, narratives, this course turns to film for practical instances to study epic's fascination with the centrality of violence in human experience. We begin with perhaps the most ambitious film epic, D. W. Griffith's Intolerance, before examining two major epic film series. Possibilities include the King Kong films, John Ford's western trilogy, the Godfather, the Alien, the Bourne, or the Star War films: I'm leaning toward the Godfather and the Alien films, but will poll the students early on to see their preferences. The class thereby carefully explores the kinds of ethical, cultural, artistic, financial, and practical problems surrounding such gigantic, popular, and violent texts. In the second half, each student is free to explore his or her own interests in this problem in terms of his or her own selection of a film or, if preferable, an epic novel or poem. Adams

ENGL 413B (3) - Senior Research and Writing: Studying Literature in Action - topical description - Prerequisite: Six credits in English at the 300-level. Explores the impact of literature on readers using empirical methods as well as introspection and traditional literary analysis. Shared theoretical readings augment individual directed readings in poetry, narrative fiction, drama, or children's literature, depending on the student's area of interest and expertise. The dynamic process of literary composition is studied by reading online email novels, blog fiction, and hypertexts. A service learning option involving work with young readers through community schools or libraries is a possibility. More traditional literary critical options are also discussed. In any case, each student writes a significant independent essay on topics they develop themselves. Students also assist Professor Keen in her research on emotional responses to reading. Keen

ENGL 413C (3) - Senior Research and Writing: Ecocriticism - topical description - Prerequisite: Six credits in English at the 300-level. In this course we investigate the relationship between nature and culture through a focus on literary theory. Readings in the history of literary theory lead to discussions of themes such as textual recovery, literary history, genre, cultural geography, material culture, ecofeminism, and environmental justice. We use an anthology of environmental literature to build our knowledge of primary texts. The possibilities for research projects are numberless, and I try to guide students toward projects that join theoretical concerns with literary texts. We work together as a study group, but each student produces a research paper on a topic of individual interest. Warren

Environmental Studies (ENV)

ENV 295 (3) - Special Topics in Environmental Studies: The Economic and Environmental Assessment of Large-Scale Projects in Latin America - topical description - Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ENV 110. This course meets for 6 hours per week (MW GHI) for the first six weeks of the winter term. A look at the controversial topic of siting large-scale projects, such as dams, highways, petroleum production facilities, and ports, in a Latin American context. The course develops a methodology for examining the full suite of social costs and benefits associated with the potential project. In particular, the role of these projects in sustainable development is analyzed. Numerous case studies are discussed in class. Students are responsible for preparing and presenting their own case study. Rivas

ENV 395 (3) - Special Topics in Environmental Ethics: Economics, Ecology and Ethics in Environmental Policy - topical description - Public policy seeks to maximize social utility. In economic terms this means allocating resources so as to maximize the satisfaction of individual preferences. However, our policy decisions regarding the environment also pursue certain ecological goals, such as the preservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of healthy and functioning ecosystems. In addition, environmental policy is constrained by ethical concerns such as the pursuit of environmental justice and our responsibilities to future generations. This course address such questions as: to what degree are these three kinds of policy goals in tension with one another? how can we clarify our thinking about these policy goals so as to harmonize them where possible and reasonably negotiate the tradeoffs when they come into conflict? Cooper

First-Year Seminars (title has "FS:" at the beginning, various disciplines, limit is typically 12-15)

REL 181 (3) - FS:Perspectives on Death and Dying - topical description - A comparison of ways in which various religious traditions, as well as modern secular writers, describe and conceive of death and the meaning of life in the face of our human mortality. Students study scripture, poetry, memoirs, novels, essays, and film, and write journals and formal essays. Includes several guest speakers and visits to funeral home and cemetery. (HU) Marks

French (FREN)

French 397 (3) - Séminaire avancé: Littérature maghrébine - topical description - Prerequisite: Three 300-level French courses. This course features a selection of contemporary novels in French written by North Africans including Driss Chraibi, Rachid Mimouni, Tahar Ben Jelloun, Assia Djebar, Leila Sebbar, Malika Mokkadem, and Yasmina Khadra. Students read about contemporary North African society. Class discussion focuses on the complex problems of post-colonial North Africa and how these novelists frame the problems of corruption, violence, immigration, exile, and freedom. Students write about the novels and give oral presentations in class. The class is conducted in French and the papers are written in French. Considerable attention is given to developing writing skills and analytical skills. (HL, GE3) Lambeth

Geology (GEOL)

GEOL 197 (3) - Weather and Climate - topical description - A survey of weather and climate, including the physical properties of air, earth-sun relationships, planetary circulation, storms, weather forecasting, and human-climate interactions. (SC, GE5C) Szramek

German (GERM)

Greek (GR)

History (HIST)

HIST 195 (3) History of Africa since 1800 - topical description - No prerequisites. Examination of the history and historiography of Africa from the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the present. Topics include pre-colonial states and societies, European colonial intrusions and African responses, development of modern political and social movements, decolonization, and the history of independent African nation-states during the Cold War and into the 21st century. (HU, GE4b) Jennings

HIST 319 (3) - Seminar on The Great War in History and Literature - newly offered course - Prerequisite: One course chosen from History 313, 318, and 323, or permission of the instructor. An advanced seminar in which students analyze different kinds of written accounts of the First World War (memoirs, autobiographical novels, poems, and diaries) by different kinds of participants, including common soldiers, government leaders, and women who worked on the "home front." In class discussions and two short papers, students evaluate the reliability of these witnesses and what the historian can learn from them about the psychological, cultural, and political consequences of the First World War in Great Britain, France, and Germany. Students choose one question raised in our common meetings for more detailed investigation in a substantial research paper integrating primary and secondary sources. (HU, GE4b) Patch

HIST 329 (3) - France: Napoleon to Present - topical description - No prerequisites. Historical study of France from the rise of Napoleon through the present, tracing France's revolutionary tradition and the continuing "Franco-French" war it spawned, and the construction of and challenges to French national identity. Topics include the successive revolutions of the 19th century, the acquisition and loss of two empires, and the transformations in French society brought by wars, industrialization, and immigration. (HU, GE4b) Horowitz

HIST 389 (3) - Science and Development in Africa - topical description - No prerequisites. Historical study of the uses, impacts, and perceptions of science in African development since the 19th century. Topics include European naturalists of the 19th century and interactions with African informants, colonial science-based development projects and their intended and unintended consequences, development of scientific infrastructure in African countries, and the perceptions of (and pressures on) African scientists from within and outside Africa. (HU, GE4b) Jennings

Interdepartmental (INTR)

Italian (ITAL)

Japanese (JAPN)

Journalism (JOUR)

JOUR 202 (3) - Introduction to Digital Journalism - revised course description - Prerequisite: JOUR 201. Concepts and practices of news gathering and presentation in a multimedia, interactive environment. Combines classroom instruction with a converged news media laboratory in which students contribute to a Web site, television newscast, and newspaper. Note: The laboratory requirement is limited to three sessions during the term, as arranged with the instructor. Artwick

JOUR 295A (3) - Saving Television News - topical description - Appropriate for non-majors. Viewers by the millions are deserting television newscasts, forcing broadcasting executives and news producers to scramble for answers to reverse the trend. This course puts students in the middle of the debate about how to save television news. Course content includes some of the journalistic, technological, and marketing strategies being considered to keep television news viable. Mattesky

JOUR 295B (3) - Research Methods in Mass Communications - topical description - Prerequisite: At least sophomore standing. Appropriate for non-majors. Introduction to the systematic study of communication, including quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in both theory-building and applied contexts. The course examines the research process, conceptualization, design, measurement, and analysis. Modes of inquiry studied include survey research, content analysis, experimental research, focus groups, depth interviewing, ethnography, and historical research. Artwick

JOUR 295C (3) - Media, Race and Gender - topical description - Open to non-majors and first-year students. This course explores how race, gender, class, and sexual orientation are portrayed in television, film, billboards, magazines and other media. It employs a theoretical and analytical framework to focus on historical and current portrayals and stereotypes of women and people of color in news, entertainment, and advertising. The course also explores how images affect perception and behavior. Somani

JOUR 295D (3) - Sports Journalism - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. A seminar examining reporting and writing methods and techniques used by working journalists who cover sports in local, regional, national, and international arenas in today’s converged journalistic universe. In addition, students read and analyze several longer pieces by working journalists. Includes an extensive writing component. de Maria

JOUR 296 (3) - Discovering America’s Early Newspapers - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Open to non-majors. This seminar allows students to take advantage of a valuable collection of historical newspapers recently donated to W&L’s Special Collections by Fred Farrar, Class of 1941. interested students are engaged in thinking historically and doing research using very old newspapers as primary sources. Cumming.

Latin (LATN)

Latin American and Caribbean Studies (LACS)

Literature in Translation (LIT)

LIT 295A (3) - Musicians, Madmen, and Meistersinger in German Romanticism and Poetic Realism - topical description - This interdisciplinary course focuses on the creative interaction between two art forms and explores such questions as: What, for example, is the relationship between music and the occult in Mozart's The Magic Flute? What is the significance of Ariel's sacrificed voice in The Little Mermaid? Why does Nietzsche connect his essay, The Birth of Tragedy, to the "spirit of music"? Throughout the semester we examine the ever-changing figure of the singer/musician in literary works and analyze how late 18th- and 19th-century German writers characterized music both as the highest and most complete of art forms and as a mysterious, dangerous, and even destructive force for German artists and citizens. Additional authors include: Goethe, Grimm, Hoffmann, Kleist, and Wagner. May be used for major requirements in German literature. (HL, GE3). Kramer

LIT 295B (3) - Topics in Literature: Literature from the Americas - topical description - A multi-genre survey of representative literary works from the Americas, defined as those regions that encompass Latin American and Caribbean cultures. In particular the course uses an interdisciplinary approach to show how exemplary artists from the region have crafted images to interpret and represent their American reality. Selected narrative, film, and poetic works by Spanish-American (Neruda, Garcia Marquez, and Carpentier), Francophone (Schwarz-Bart), Lusophone (Amado), Anglophone (Walcott, Brathwaite, and Hodge) and Latino authors (Diaz), among others. (HL, GE3) Barnett

Mathematics (MATH)

MATH 401 (1) - Directed Individiual Study: Introduction to Actuarial Science - topical description - This instructor-led independent study course prepares students for either the Exam P (Probability) or Exam FM (Financial Mathematics) actuary exam. Topics covered depend on student interest. Crowley

Medieval and Renaissance Studies (MRST)

Military Science (MS)

Music (MUS)

Neuroscience (NEUR)

Philosophy (PHIL)

PHIL 259 (3) - Philosophy of the Family - topical description - This course considers philosophical issues raised by family as a social institution and as a legal institution. Topics include the social and personal purposes served by the institution of family, the nature of relationships between family members, the various forms that family can take, the scope of family privacy or autonomy, and how family obligations, mutual support and interdependency affect individual members of families. (HU, GE4c) Bell

PHIL 295 (3) - Seminar in Philosophy - newly offered course, topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. A consideration of selected issues in philosophy. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Topic for Winter 2009: Self, Other and Community -
This course explores notions of identity and difference from the context of living in an increasingly complex global community. When being a self depends first on being recognized by others, then how do we relate to others selves and engage in community with them or live in isolation from them? The course takes as its starting point Hegel's dialectic of master and slave, Buber's philosophy of dialogue, Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of embodied intersubjectivity, and Levina's ethics of alterity. The second half of the course concentrates on the work of feminist philosophers, race-theorists, and post-colonialist thinkers who propose problems with these philosophies and offer alternative ways of speaking about self and other. Among other questions, we explore: How do we perceive, and communicate with, others who have different bodies, genders, cultures and histories? How is our identity shaped in a society with multiple intersecting layers of difference? Is it possible to construct communities of diversity? (HU, GE4c) Verhage

PHIL 301 (3) - Metaphysics - revised course description - An examination of central issues in metaphysics. Topics include existence, the relationship between an object and its properties, time, space, persistence, and cause and effect. Topics may also include the nature of possibility, actuality, and necessary, and discussions about why anything exists at all. (HU, GE4c) Goldberg

Physical Education (PE)

Physical Education - IMPORTANT -- Read the instructions for PE registration at
registrar.wlu.edu/registration/regpe.htm


and the departmental information at
athletics.wlu.edu/physical_education/

Students may express a preference for up to three skills courses as part of web registration. These preferences will be examined after the academic schedule is set and, if open and not in conflict with the academic courses, one may be placed in the schedule. Changes or additional sections may still be handled during the drop/add period.

The following Physical Education courses have an additional charge, billed to the student's account after registration:

Physics (PHYS)

PHYS 421A (1) - Directed Research: Laser Dynamics Research - topical description - Directed research in experimental laser dynamics. Students  conduct experiments in the laboratory of the supervising professor. May be repeated for degree credit with permission of the instructor. Sukow

Politics (POL)

POL 295A (3) - Seminar on International Security - topical description - This course introduces the basic problems and proposed solutions in the field of international security. The course has two main goals: 1) focus on the basic scholarly approaches to understanding the causes of war and peace in the international system: Realism, Liberalism, Socialism/Marxism and Constructivism, and 2) develop a detailed understanding of the complex histories of major conflicts in international relations. Some of the historical cases and problems studied in detail are: the Concert of Europe, 19th-century imperialism, World War I, World War II, the Cold War, decolonization, ethnonationalist conflicts, and genocide. Contemporary problems such as Russia's intrusion in Georgia, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Iran's nuclear ambitions, state failures in Africa, and the "clash of civilizations" are also examined. (SS2) Zarakol

POL 295B (3) - Seminar on Terrorism - topical description - This course focuses on international terrorism. In order to place contemporary terrorism in its proper context, we study the historical evolution of this phenomenon and the methods and motivations of "terrorist" groups throughout history such as the Zealots Sicarii, Assassins of Hassan Sabbah, Narodnaya Volya, and the Serbian Black Hand. We also examine the various nationalist, anti-imperialist, and religious terrorist groups of the 20th century such as the IRA, ETA, PKK, the Shining Path, the Red Brigades, Aum Shinrikyo, Kahane Chai, Hamas, Hizbullah, etc. Lastly, we look at Al-Qaeda and try to determine if it is a new kind of terrorist organization. In examining terrorism in a historically and geographically comparative context, our goal is to see if generalizations about terrorism are possible. (SS2) Zarakol

POL 295C (3) - Comparative Genocide Studies: From the Holocaust to Darfur - topical description - This course examines 'the crime of crimes' - genocide. After the horrors of the Holocaust, the international community drafted in 1948 the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and pledged "never again" should such evil strike humanity. Sixty years later we know: the pledge proved empty; numerous genocides followed. Genocidal violence has devastated the people of Darfur, Sudan, since 2003. Why? To answer this and related questions, we examine a number of different and, in part, controversial cases of genocidal violence, including the histories of Native Americans, Armenians, and other victim groups. We scrutinize what genocide is and is not and why this distinction is deemed so important. We also discuss the critical role the Holocaust plays in all this. Further case studies draw on how the world has responded to more recent events in the Former Yugoslavia (1992-1995), Rwanda (1994), and Darfur. Will genocide ever be defeated? Do we care? (SS2) Mennecke

POL 295D (3) - Wimps v. Cowboys?: A European Introduction to International Law - topical description -This course introduces the growing and exciting discipline of international law and the role it plays for international politics. International law covers the set of rules and principles regulating the legal relationships between international actors. We explore key topics and examine the US strategy of pre-emptive strikes; the role and impact of the United Nations and the European Union; the significance of non-governmental organisations such as Amnesty International; and cases such as Darfur and individual human rights. Why should international law remain a key concern for foreign policy makers with all its differences from the legal systems of nation-states? The second part of the course highlights the interlinking of international law and international politics, and focuses on some of the recent major controversies between the United States and Europe; controversies that split traditional allies. We scrutinize the legal questions surrounding the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the "war on terror", and the International Criminal Court. The intense (at times hostile) exchanges between the Bush administration and European leaders suggest a deep divide on what international law is about. The course examine whether and, if so, why there is such a divide, and whether this might change under the new US president. (SS2) Staff

POL 380 (3) - Global Politics Seminar: Public Policy Analysis - topical description - No prerequisites. Meets the politics major global politics field requirement. Open to majors and non-majors of all classes. Recommended for students interested in the public sector, estate management, probate law, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs). Assessment of global public policy on public goods (via collective action analysis), distributive justice of private goods (via fair division analysis), and market stabilization (via institutional design). (SS2) McCaughrin

POL 397 (3) - James Madison's America - topical description - Prerequisite: POL 100. This course explores the "combining mind" of James Madison, who as a theorist and practitioner understood the need to bridge theory and practice. Madison was not a philosopher and not a particularly successful president, yet he was an effective legislator and he is often called "the Founder" and the "Father of the Constitution." Madison understood that practice completes political philosophy; therefore, the course focuses on the contemporary relevance of the enduring tensions between political principles and political practice. Among other questions, we explore: Was Madison a Federalist or an Anti-Federalist - or both? Why was Madison a more effective legislator than president? Is it true that James Madison still rules America today? (SS2) Connelly

Portuguese (PORT)

Poverty and Human Capability Studies (POV) Students normally begin the study of Poverty and Human Capability with POV 101 (3), An Interdisciplinary Introduction. This course meets the requirement for credits (but not for one of the two areas) under GE4 and for FDR HU. Students who complete this course (or POL 215 (3), International Development, for international internships) are eligible to participate in Shepherd summer internships. They may apply for the internship prior to taking the course if they can complete the course before engaging in the internship. Students may also take discipline-based courses on poverty before or after taking the introductory course on poverty and human capability. These courses are listed on the Shepherd Program website at shepherd.wlu.edu/. Students are strongly advised to consult with the Director of the Shepherd Program if they wish to count these courses as a part of the Shepherd Program transcript recognition. You may take any courses without being required to complete the requirements for the program.

Psychology (PSYC)

PSYC 395 (3) - Applications of Psychological Science - topical description - Prerequisites: Major in neuroscience or psychology. This course considers both standard applications of psychological science (e.g., clinical/counseling psychology) and unusual ones (e.g., organ donation). Ten alumni guest lecturers discuss how they apply psychological science in their careers (seven actual visitors and three virtual ones via web conference). In addition to clinical/counseling psychology and organ donation, the course includes an examination of career services, human-resources consulting, industrial/organizational psychology, neuropsychology, social services, finance, technology, and issues in entrepreneurship. Part of the evaluation of students involves a term paper concerning applications not otherwise considered in the course. Elmes and alumni guest lecturers

Public Speaking (PSPK)

Religion (REL)

REL 181 (3) - FS:Perspectives on Death and Dying - topical description - A comparison of ways in which various religious traditions, as well as modern secular writers, describe and conceive of death and the meaning of life in the face of our human mortality. Students study scripture, poetry, memoirs, novels, essays, and film, and write journals and formal essays. Includes several guest speakers and visits to funeral home and cemetery. (HU) Marks

REL 295 (3) - Religion and Existentialism: Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche - topical description - Students of any year and any major welcome. A consideration of the philosophical and theological accounts of existence elaborated by Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. Attention is paid to the religious context in which these philosophies were elaborated and to their significance for future philosophers, theologians, artists, and literary figures. Additional thinkers considered may include Karl Marx, Ludwig Feuerbach, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Martin Heidegger, Gabriel Marcel, and others. (HU, GE4d) Kosky

Russian (RUSS)

Russian Area Studies (RAS)

Sociology (SOC)

SOC 290 (3) - The Demise of Religion? - topical description - No prerequisite. For some years, "secularization theory" - the view that political and economic "modernization" inevitably produces religion's demise - was nearly the consensus among social scientists. More recently, scholars have been forced to question this once common position. Religion seems to remain a powerful force in today's world. This course explores this central debate in the sociology of religion. Eastwood

Spanish (SPAN)

SPAN 392 (3) – Spanish Language Theory and Practice - newly offered course, topical description - Prerequisite: Spanish 215. A topics course that approaches language study through theories of language use and meaning, as well as their practical application through extensive writing exercises. Topics may include translation theory, analysis of theoretical approaches to language study, and advanced grammar. For Winter, 2009: Field Work in Advanced Grammar and Translation. An advanced Spanish seminar devoted to the reinforcement of Spanish grammar and the analysis of theoretical themes surrounding Spanish grammar and translation. Students complete a review and analysis of complicated Spanish grammar points. They apply this knowledge to grammar exercises, advanced composition and translation, oral presentation, and service-learning in the community. Special thematic attention paid to Spanish speakers in the United States. Mayock

SPAN 398 (3) - Field Work in Advanced Grammar and Translation - renumbered as 392

SPAN 398 (3) - 20th-Century Spanish-American Theater - topical description - Prerequisites: SPAN 240 and 215. A study of the major plays written and produced by the most innovative playwrights in Spanish America. This course includes authors whose works represent different trends in Spanish American theater, authors such as Arlt, Marqués, Díaz, Gambaro, Carballido, Triana and Berman, as well as the main theatrical events of the past twenty years. Students will be expected to read, discuss, and analyze the dramatic texts, as well as perform scenes from the plays in class. (HL, GE3) Botta

Theater (THTR)

THTR 397A (3) - Seminar in Theater Topics: Digital Production - topical description - Prerequisite: six credit hours in theater courses or permission of the instructor. Digital technologies and multimedia interaction are increasingly utilized to produce, enhance, and innovate theatrical production. Students will examine and experiment with various digital technologies as they relate to theater and dance performance. Students will create digital audio, video, design rendering and animation projects for theatrical performances. Evans

THTR 397B (3) - Seminar in Theater Topics: Musical Theater - topical description - Prerequisite: six credit hours in theater courses or permission of the instructor. Not open to students who took THTR 290 in Winter 2008. A survey of musical theater as an art form that combines the talents of composers, lyricists, directors, choreographers, set and costume designers and others. Students will apply their musical and acting skills in the development and performance of excerpts from distinctive musicals of various eras. Mish

University Scholars (UNIV)

Women's Studies (WST)

Courses for Winter 2009

The following courses have been permanently approved for credit in the Women’s Studies Program: ANTH 275: Feminist Anthropology; ENGL 358: Literature by Women before 1800; HIST 385: The Yin and Yang of Gender in Late Imperial China; PHIL 259: Philosophy and the Family; PHIL 215: Social Inequality and Fair Opportunity;
PSYC 269: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination; and SOC 280: Gender and Sexuality.

The following winter-term special topics course may be used to meet a requirement in the Women’s Studies program: JOUR 295: Media, Race and Gender.

We plan to offer WST 120, Introduction to Women’s Studies, during Spring 2009. However, any student who has satisfied prerequisites, may take Winter 2009 classes for credit toward completion of the women’s studies curriculum prior to completing WST 120.

Please feel free to contact Professor Robin Le Blanc, acting head of the Women’s Studies program with any further questions. womensstudies.wlu.edu/