WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY REGISTRATION
Changes to the 2008-2009 Catalog and Special Announcements for Fall Term 2008
(updated to )

For accurate and up-to-date information, please see "Recent Changes" and the course listing on the University Registrar's web page at http://registrar.wlu.edu/ .

by academic discipline:

Accounting First-Year Seminars (FS) Philosophy
African-American Studies French Physical Education 
Anthropology Geology Physics
Art (ARTH, ARTS) German Politics
Biology Greek  Portuguese
Business Administration History Poverty & Human Capability
Chemistry Interdepartmental  Psychology
Chinese Italian Public Speaking
Classics Japanese Religion
Computer Science Journalism & Mass Communication Romance Languages
Dance Latin Russian
East Asian studies Latin American and Caribbean Studies Russian Area Studies
East Asian Languages & Literatures Lit in Translation  Sociology
Economics Mathematics Spanish
Education Medieval & Renaissance Studies Theater
Engineering Military Science/ROTC University Scholars
English Music Women's Studies
Environmental studies Neuroscience   

Accounting (ACCT)

African-American Studies (AFAM)

Anthropology (ANTH)

ANTH 290A (3) - Economic Anthropology - topical description - This course presents a cross-cultural survey of economic practices throughout time and around the world. Using classic and contemporary anthropological studies, we seek to understand how people have organized production, exchange, and consumption, and how these processes articulate with community dynamics such as religious beliefs, ethical codes, social networks, and gender roles. With case studies ranging from prehistoric foragers to early-modern farmers and 19th-century mariners, we investigate culturally diverse and socially embedded understandings of commodities, gifts, property, success, and wealth. Bell  

ANTH 290B (3) - Seminar in North American Indian Social Movements - topical description - Drawing upon Native and academic accounts, this seminar explores a selection of the socio-religious movements that arose among American Indian peoples during the 18th through 20th centuries. Stemming from assaults by European colonists and American society on their communities, such movements were generally characterized by beliefs and practices that promised to restore and renew traditional lifeways while expelling the sources of disruption. Among the movements the seminar explores are the Cherokee Revival of 1811, The Handsome Lake Movement among the Seneca (Iroquois) Indians, the Dreamer Religion of the Pacific Northwest tribes, the 1890 Ghost Dance of the Lakota Sioux, and the American Indian Movement (AIM). Markowitz.

Art (now ARTH and ARTS for history and studio, respectively)

ARTS 160A (3) - FS: Photography I - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. An introduction to the technical and creative principles of black-and-white photography as a fine art medium, with an emphasis on composition, exposure, and darkroom technique. In addition to the studio projects, this course includes reading, writing, and discussion components to introduce students to contemporary issues and image makers in fine art photography. Lab fee required. (HA) Bowden

 

ARTS 295 (3) - The Big Print – topical descriptionPrerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Large-scale prints require unique considerations in both design and execution. The goal of this intensive printmaking class is to both develop an ambitious series of large scale prints for each student and a whole-class, collaborative, large-scale print. Traditional intaglio and relief, collage, photo digital and monotype processes are used singly and in combination to produce big prints. This course includes group critique, a visiting artist workshop, and weekly one-on-one consultations. Experience with at least one printmaking technique is encouraged though not required. (HA, GE4A) Beavers
 

ARTH 390 (3) – Special Topics Seminar in Asian Art: Chinese Export Porcelain – topical description - Prerequisite: Art History 140 or permission of instructor. History of Chinese porcelain made for Europe and America, 1500-1900. This seminar examines Chinese export porcelain from several different perspectives, including how it was made and decorated, its stylistic influences, its role as a commodity in the China Trade, its influence on Western dining and drinking patterns, and its influence on Western ceramics. This is a hands-on seminar using the ceramic collection at the Reeves Center. (HA, GE4A). O'Mara

Biology (BIOL)

 

BIOL 111A (3) - Fundamentals of Biology: Bacterial Genetics - topical description - Corequisite: Biology 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. Since Frederick Griffith's discovery in 1928 that nonpathogenic bacteria could transform and become pathogenic, many strains of bacteria have evolved resistant to antibiotics, resulting in the emergence and re-emergence of bacterial diseases. We discuss the way bacteria use DNA to become pathogenic, to become resistant to antibiotics, and to cause disease. (SL, GE5a with Biology 113) Simurda

BIOL 111B (3) - Fundamentals of Biology: Hypothermia, Heart Attacks, and Strokes - topical description - Corequisite: Biology 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. We investigate the therapeutic benefits of hypothermia treatments by understanding the biochemical and physiological basis of tissue damage in patients that have experienced heart attacks or strokes. (SL, GE5a with Biology 113) Hamilton

 

BIOL 111C (3) - Fundamentals of Biology: Adaptation and Biodiversity – topical description – An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This course is concerned with three major questions about biological diversity on earth: (1) how did it come to be? (2) what is its present condition? and (3) what is its future? We examine physiological adaptations, genetic sources of diversity, evolutionary and ecological processes, anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, and conservation strategies. (SL, GE5a with Biology 113) Hurd

 

BIOL 111D (3) - Fundamentals of Biology: Marine Biology – topical description - An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. A survey of the biology of marine organisms, with emphasis on their unique adaptations and the selective pressures of marine habitats. Why don't sharks get cancer? Why (and how) do swordfish heat their eyes and brains? How are communities of organisms at deep-sea vents sustained without any sunlight for photosynthesis? These questions and others are investigated by reviewing historic and recent scientific literature. (SL, GE5a with Biology 113) Humston 

 

BIOL 111E (3) - Fundamentals in Biology: Communication from Cells to Organismstopical description - An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This course discusses the issues of communication of a cell with its external environment beginning with the single-celled organism, followed by a consideration of cell size and the evolution of multi-cellular organisms. Multi-cellular forms of communication are introduced, and their role in maintaining a stable environment for the individual cells of the whole organism are studied. (SL, GE5a with Biology 113) I'Anson

BIOL 222 (4), Animal Development - newly offered course - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113. This course investigates cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate invertebrate and vertebrate development. Topics include fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, axis specification, patterning, organogenesis, morphogens, and stem cells. Students examine research strategies used to understand the basic principles underlying development such as gene function, cell signaling, and signal transduction during embryogenesis. Laboratory sessions focus on experimental manipulations of early invertebrate and vertebrate embryos and emphasize student-designed research projects. Watson

BIOL 295A (1) - Topics in Biology: Infectious Disease - topical description – A series of student presentations and discussions on the history and current situation of selected infectious diseases. We investigate those infectious diseases that have had major impacts on human society and discuss the status of the recent research on their control. Simurda

 

BIOL 296B (1) - Topics in Biology: Ecology and Conservation - topical description - An examination of how current ecological research is contributing to our understanding of important conservation issues related to the loss and preservation of global biodiversity: habitat loss and fragmentation, introduction of exotic species, and other human-caused environmental disruptions. Students present material from the primary research literature in a group discussion format. Hurd

BIOL 396/NEUR 395 (3) - Stem-Cell Biology – topical description - Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 220. An investigation of the origin, biology, and potential of embryonic and adult stem cells for repair and regeneration. Applications to Parkinson's disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, myocardial repair, and liver regeneration are examined. Lectures, discussions of the stem cell literature, and case studies are included. Wielgus.

Business Administration (BUS)

BUS 197 (0) - Washington and Lee Student Consulting - newly offered course - Pass/fail basis only. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. This co-curricular student organization provides pro bono consulting services to businesses and not-for-profits. Experiential learning draws from business fields such as marketing, finance, accounting, electronic commerce, database management, business strategy, and human resources. In addition to working on various projects, students gain experience managing the organization. Students must participate in a competitive application process in order to participate. Straughan

BUS 345/INTR 345 (3) - Business Ethics: The Ethics of Globalization – topical description - Prerequisite: Junior standing. Meets upper-level international business requirement for business majors; philosophy elective for philosophy majors. This team-taught, interdisciplinary seminar examines a number of moral and ethical issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected - economically, culturally, and politically - we are faced with a host of new questions about how to conceive of the ethical responsibilities of individuals, multi-national corporations, nation-states, and global institutions within this new global framework. Our aim in this course is to identify and clarify some of these questions, and to consider some different approaches that have been taken in answering them. Some of the specific topics that will be addressed include: international trade and international business; global poverty and global inequality; immigration and the significance of national borders; humanitarian intervention; global warming and global justice; multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism; and global governance. Readings are drawn from a wide variety of fields, including philosophy, business, economics, political science, and public policy, among others. The faculty come from business and philosophy, and guest lecturers have expertise in the fields of human rights, environmental ethics, and political philosophy. Reiter, Smith

Chemistry (CHEM)

CHEM 133 (3) - FS: Describing Nature - Cancelled

CHEM 196 (3) - Nuclear Power, Energy, and the Environment - topical description - No prerequisites. An examination of nuclear power as a current and future source of energy. Topics include introduction to science and technology of nuclear reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear waste, history of nuclear power generation in the U.S. and other nations, economic, legal, and environmental issues, risks associated with proliferation of nuclear weapons and terrorist attacks, and a comparison of nuclear power with other source of energy. Students are responsible for addressing the following issues associated with nuclear power: economics, legal and regulatory (domestic and international), proliferation of nuclear weapons, terrorist attacks on nuclear power facilities, and the position of nuclear power relative to other sources of energy. Written work includes responses to topics on discussion boards and a term paper. Oral work includes participation in class discussions and a final presentation on a topic of interest. The course concept map (http://npw.wlu.edu/materials/map.htm ) provides an overview of the topics and their relationships. (SC, GE5C) Settle

Chinese (CHIN)

Classics (CLAS)

CLAS 208 (3), The Classical Epic Tradition - newly offered course - In this course, we read some of the most famous stories of the Western world, from the Iliad and the Odyssey, to Milton's Paradise Lost and Joyce's Ulysses, via Vergil's Aeneid and Lucan's Civil War. All of these works are epic narratives, each presenting a different concept of the hero, and yet, at the same time, participating in a coherent, ongoing, and unfinished tradition. Questions explored include the problematic nature of the hero; the relation between poetry and violence; and the nature of a literary tradition. (HL, GE3) Crotty

Computer Science (CSCI)

CSCI 397 (3) - Seminar: Human-Computer Interaction - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Human-computer interaction (HCI) is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use. Beyond computer programming and design principles, HCI requires knowledge of applied psychology and organizational and social issues. Students learn the fundamental concepts of human-computer interaction and user-centered design thinking. Students also work on a significant research or development project to deepen their understanding of HCI issues. Sprenkle

Dance (DANC)

DANC 292 (2) - Applied Ballet - Cancelled

DANC 395 (3) - Topics in Dance Composition:Argentine Tango - topical description - No prerequisites. The study of the history and evolution of the native dance of Argentina. The history of Argentina is used as a lens through which the development of its dance form was born, grew and developed. This class uses historical literature, video, live performance and individual dance work as a means of understanding the complex history of the dance form and the country. Davies

East Asian Languages and Literatures (EALL)

East Asian Studies (EAS)

Economics (ECON)

Education (EDUC)

Engineering (ENGN)

English (ENGL)

ENGL 101A (3) - Expository Writing: International Issues - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition, emphasizing rhetoric, style, and structure, and giving some attention to methods of documentation. The course focuses primarily on the students’ own compositions and includes regular conferences with the instructor. This section is designed for non-native speakers of English and provides extensive group and individualized help with reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills. We study some international issues and compare life in other countries with contemporary life in the United States. The course also involves students teaching about their native countries. (FW) Smout

ENGL 101B (3) - Expository Writing: Human Values and Beliefs - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition, emphasizing rhetoric, style, and structure, and giving some attention to methods of documentation. The course focuses primarily on the students’ own compositions and includes regular conferences with the instructor. This section is intended for students who are native speakers of English. Beginning with Man's Search for Meaning, a classic description of the mental experiences of concentration camp inmates, students in this section read two books and several essays about the role of values and beliefs in human life, focusing especially on the life of college students. (FW) Smout

ENGL 105A (3) - Composition and Literature: Horror and Tragedy from Deepest Space to Darkest Lexington - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. Beginning with a recent and critically acclaimed horror novel set in Lexington and Washington and Lee, this course explores the close connections between tragedy, traditionally ranked as one of literature's premier genres, and horror, typically regarded as a minor, even déclassé subgenre. We focus on three case studies combining both major examples of horror-tragedy and key theorists: first, Aristotle's Poetics and Aeschylus's Oresteia; second, Nietzsche's writings on Wagner and tragedy, Wagner's own Flying Dutchman, and Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean (only the first film); and third, Michel Houllebecq, H. P. Lovecraft's horror fiction, and the wonderful late 20th-century sci-fi horror epics inspired by Lovecraft, the Alien films. (FW) Adams

ENGL 105B (3) - Composition and Literature: I See Dead People - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. The course focuses on literary representations of spirits and the afterlife. Texts may include: Henry James, The Turn of the Screw; A. S. Byatt, The Conjugal Angel; W. P. Kinsella, Shoeless Joe; Jean-Paul Sartre, No Exit; Thornton Wilder, Our Town; Toni Morrison, Beloved. (FW) Gavaler

ENGL 105C (3) - Composition and Literature: Exiles and Outcasts - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. In this course, we read a variety of texts ranging across different times and genres that explore what it means to be in exile. From the epic Beowulf, to Shakespeare's The Tempest, to lyrics from the Romantic and Victorian periods, we look at what happens when social bonds are broken, how characters survive when they find themselves far from what is familiar, and how exile defines social experience. Short response papers and critical essays emphasize close reading and help students develop analytical and writing skills. (FW) Jirsa

ENGL 105D (3) - Composition and Literature: Reading the Golden Compass: The Materials of Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. With a film of The Golden Compass out just last year, the controversy about Philip Pullman's award-winning trilogy His Dark Materials has heated up. Though some Christian readers have taken offense at the author's critique of an oppressive institutional Church, the Magisterium, the author asserts that he meant his work to update Milton, as a "Paradise Lost for teenagers." Few contemporary authors have so vividly depicted human souls, Pullman's daemons. Other sources of His Dark Materials include the poetry of Blake, Dante, and Shelley. A careful reading of Pullman is accompanied by the study of his major literary and scientific sources, and engagement with the critical controversy, including Pullman's criticism of the Narnia novels as sexist and racist works. Watch the film trailer at goldencompassmovie.com. (FW) Keen

ENGL 105E (3) - Composition and Literature: Literary Detection - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. In this course we study and practice the skills of textual analysis, argumentative writing, and critical thinking through an exploration of literature about detectives and detection. Examining stories, novels, poems, and plays that address, either explicitly or implicitly, the practice of discovering clues, evaluating and interpreting evidence, and constructing coherent analyses, we develop ideas about detection as a theme while cultivating the kind of sophisticated argumentation required in college-level writing. Requirements include intensive writing (multiple essays, revisions, and other exercises), regular critical evaluation of the writing of fellow students, and active class participation. (FW) Matthews

ENGL 105F (3) - Composition and Literature: The Bad Girl's Guide to the Open Road - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. This course examines five different texts in which women take a variety of road trips; through these texts, we study the historical, emotional, gendered, raced, spiritual and economic perspectives of traveling, and look closely at how road trips are a literary structure that allows writers (and readers) to explore the formation of individual and national identity. How and why do women take road trips? Do age, race, and economic status figure into these journeys? How do outward journeys serve as metaphors for inner explorations? Do women travel differently than men? Are road trips inherently more dangerous for women? Do women's road trips function as vehicles for classic coming of age mileposts such as rebellion, testing, passage into adulthood, or is there something else going on? If so, what function does the road trip serve for women in American literature? How are road trip narratives useful structures for examining women's lives? Are women who take to the open road represented as deviants, undomesticated, or "bad girls" and if so, why? What is the appeal of the open road for women writers and travelers in American literature? (FW) Miranda

ENGL 105G (3) - Composition and Literature: Mysteries, Puzzles, and Conundrums - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. We concern ourselves with mysteries, not in the generic sense of stories about crime and detection, but mysteries of character, morality, religion, and art. Central to each of the works we read is some puzzle, secret, riddle, enigma, ambiguity, or complexity. (Sometimes the work itself is the mystery, a kind of hieroglyph.) Each work, in its own way, raises questions about the methods and the limitations of human discovery. (FW) Oliver

ENGL 105H (3) - Composition and Literature: American Gods - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. Students in this class consider the creeds and values that have jostled together in the literatures of the United States and, more generally, what Americans hold sacred. Our readings include 19th-, 20th-, and 21st-century poetry and fiction, from Melville and Dickinson to Ginsberg, Kingston, and Silko. (FW) Wheeler

ENGL 105I (3) - Composition and Literature: Imagining Genealogy: Reading and Writing Family Narratives - topical description - Concentrated work in English composition. All students write at least five essays during the term with stress on argumentation, the use of evidence, critical analysis, and clarity of style. Where are you from? Who are your people? Do you see yourself as an extension of your mother's family? Your father's? Both? Neither? These are real questions when we think about family, heritage, bloodlines, and identity construction. In this class we do three things: 1) read writers who have both explored, imagined, and at times, rejected their family trees, 2) analyze their methods, and 3) begin writing our own genealogical narratives. Specifically, we write and revise four analytical essays on four separate texts. Along the way we do some research of our own, looking into our family trees while working toward a final project that may be essay, story, or memoir. Texts include some of the following titles: Somehow Form a Family, Tony Earley; The Mistress's Daughter, A. M. Homes; Orphans, Charles D'Ambrosio; The View From Castle Rock, Alice Munro; Family, Ian Frazier. (FW) McCormick

ENGL 262 (3) - Literature, Race, and Ethnicity - topical description - In this course, we take a comparative approach to the study of race and ethnicity as we read and discuss texts by members of various ethnic and racial groups within the U.S., including but not limited to African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Many of the literary and critical readings in this field consider the ways in which minority groups interact with majority groups. With that in mind, we focus on the following sets of tensions within this body of literature and scholarship: assimilation and alienation; mother tongue and official language; local communities and the nation state; and lastly, oppression and resistance. Seeking to understand the roles that race and ethnicity play in the formation of cultural and national identities, we investigate the historical and political context surrounding each of the texts that we read. While paying careful attention to both formal elements and narrative strategies, students develop persuasive arguments about the texts as they engage with race and ethnicity through critical analysis of the readings. May be an option for the Program in Women's Studies with permission. (HL, GE3) Hall

ENGL 292A (3) - Topics in British Literature: Modern British Poetry - topical description - This course concentrates on poetry from 1870 through 1950, asking how British poets have pushed the limits of traditional verse. British poets are known for being less innovative than their American and Continental peers. We sample poems by Walt Whitman and William Carlos Williams before asking: what did "experimentation" mean to Gerard Manley Hopkins and Thomas Hardy? And how did Yeats experiment with history in his poems, as opposed to Ezra Pound? We also see how female poets, such as Edith Sitwell and Stevie Smith, developed highly original voices, and we end by sampling the works of more recent poets, including an influx of immigrant writers. (HL, GE3) Brodie

ENGL  292B (3) - Topics in British Literature: Romantic, Victorian, and Modern Monsters - topical description - In this class we explore Romantic, Victorian, and Modern representations of "monsters" - a term that names a variety of conditions of the body or mind, including unnaturalness, super-naturalness, deformity, depravity, and simple lack of conformity. Beginning in the late 18th century and moving toward the 20th, we compare various literary monsters to conceptualize and distinguish the larger cultural movements of Romantic (about 1798-1832), Victorian (about 1837-1901), and ultimately Modern (1901-1945) Britain. Critical issues of gender, sexuality, race, and class inform our conversation - a conversation built primarily upon a close attention to and careful analysis of the literary texts. These include Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," Shelley's Frankenstein, Rossetti's "Goblin Market," Wilde's Picture of Dorian Gray, Stoker's Dracula, and Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Requirements include careful attention to these texts, 12-15 pages of critical writing, an in-class presentation, exams, and active participation. (HL, GE3) Matthews

ENGL 293 (3) - Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Gilded Age - topical description - This course investigates American literature written during the historical period that Mark Twain dubbed the Gilded Age (roughly 1865 to 1905). An explosive era of excesses and contradictions, the Gilded Age witnessed Reconstruction, the rise of the modern city, the closing of the frontier, and the celebration of unprecedented wealth. With the major literary developments of realism and naturalism in mind, we practice close reading of individual texts to see how diverse writers created complex, often conflicting representations of American experience and national identity. For instance, we juxtapose Dreiser's Sister Carrie with L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (both published in 1900), the popular dime-novels of Horatio Alger with the conjure tales of Charles Chesnutt, and the intensely personal poetry of Emily Dickinson with the publicly censured novel The Awakening. Requirements include thoughtful class participation, short responses, analytical essays, and exams. (HL, GE3)  Wall

ENGL 299A (3) - Seminar for Prospective Majors: Contact and Captivity Narratives - topical description - Contact and captivity narratives primarily arise out of the interactions and conflicts among different groups of people in the Americas, and many of these narratives can be read as autobiographies, ethnographies, sentimental fiction, or adventure tales. Reading across genres and historical periods, we ask why conflicts arose between various peoples as we pay special attention to the role of U. S. territorial expansion in our study of these narratives. Captivity narratives also highlight the physical and psychic struggles between master and slave, and we seek to understand how these narratives not only reveal the captive's desire but also participate in national politics. Readings include works by Mary Rowlandson, Frederick Douglass, Herman Melville, Catharine Sedgwick, and Leslie Silko. This seminar is a gateway course to the English major, and written assignments are intended to introduce students to the process of writing a research paper. In addition to reading and discussing literary texts, students engage with critical and theoretical readings to develop a sophisticated approach to literary scholarship and to advance to the level of critique typical of upper-level courses. May be an option for the Program in Women's Studies with permission. (HL, GE3)  Hall

ENGL 299B (3) - Seminar for Prospective Majors: Gothic Literature from Walpole to Brontë - topical description - In the late 18th century, British readers were fascinated by stories of haunted castle ruins, tyrannical villains, and dark and stormy nights. This course investigates the rise to prominence of such Gothic novels, the trends in poetry and philosophy concurrent with fiction's increased interest in the supernatural and sublime, and the revisions of conventional Gothic elements in novels of the early nineteenth century. Readings begin with Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto, widely considered the first Gothic novel; we move on to instances of Gothic at its height of popularity in the 1790s (Ann Radcliffe's "novels of terror" and Matthew Lewis's "novels of horror"); then we examine parodies and revisions of these elements in Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, and Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre. Along the way, we also study poetry (probably including the so-called "Graveyard poets," Coleridge, and Byron) that shares interests and themes with Gothic fiction. This course aims to train students in the reading, writing, discussion, and research skills necessary for English majors; to this end, each student will develop a major seminar paper on a topic relevant to the course. (HL, GE3) Braunschneider

ENGL 314 (3) - Romance and Ballad - topical description - A study of the major Middle English romances (Malory's Morte d'Arthur, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, Sir Orfeo) and of the Anglo-Norman Lais of Marie de France, followed by a study of the popular ballad. Particular attention is paid to the development (and critique) of the ideology of knighthood in late-medieval narrative poetry. Students develop a proficiency in the Middle English language, sufficient to the needs of reading. (HL, GE3) Jirsa

ENGL 333 (3) - Studies in Restoration and Early 18th-Century Literature: Libertine Literature - topical description - Authors of the Restoration period (1660-1689) produced some of British literature's most frankly sexual works. In this course, we study examples of such 'libertine' poetry, drama, and prose to analyze the ideas they convey about human sexuality and its relation to a number of other phenomena: these include gender and class relations; the uses, meanings, and moral status of pleasure; the relation between reason and emotion; and the definition and social functions of 'literature.' Readings feature works by John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, Aphra Behn, George Etherege, and William Congreve. We also study early 18th-century critiques of libertine literature (particularly the periodical essays of Joseph Addison and Richard Steele) to examine how emerging concepts of 'politeness' and 'taste' produce different treatments of sexuality. Our term ends with Rose Tremain's 1989 novel, Restoration, which narrates the life of a late 17th-century libertine through a late 20th-century lens. Students should be aware: because of their direct—and often irreverent and sometimes degrading—discussion of bodies and sex, several of the readings for this course could easily be categorized as obscene. Our task is to think analytically about the literary, cultural, philosophical, and political implications of such representations. (HL, GE3) Braunschneider

ENGL 345 (3) - Studies in the 19th-Century British Novel: Comfort Fiction - topical description - A cultural study of the 19th-century novel focusing on its material status as a luxury item of an affluent society, one which afforded many of its citizens the resources in time and money to indulge in the pleasures of leisurely reading. The novels and career of the great Victorian novelist Anthony Trollope stands at the center of this course since they provide the clearest case study of novels in light of the concept of comfort in a wide variety of senses - monetary, physical, cultural, psychological, and readerly. From Trollope this seminar ranges back to his own inspiration in comfort in the novels of Austen and Scott, outward to contemporary rivals to Trollope in comfort such as Gaskell and Oliphant and opponents of fictional comfort such as the sensational novelists Collins and Braddon, and forward to followers and critics of Trollope from Galsworthy to Gissing. (HL, GE3) Adams

ENGL 359 (3) - Literature by Women of Color in the 20th Century - topical description - This course focuses on the intersection of race and gender as they meet in the lives and identities of contemporary women of color via literature: African Americans, Native Americans, Chicanas, Arab Americans, Asian Americans, and mixed-bloods, or "mestizas." What is most different about this course from others you may have taken - even Women's Studies courses - is that our curriculum moves women of color from a historically marginal position in the curriculum to the center of our attention. Rather than dividing the course up into racial categories, our readings, discussions, and writings center on four basic themes - Soul, Heart, Mind, and Body - as ways to look at identity, diversity, resistance, and celebration in the histories and experiences of women of color in poetry, fiction, autobiography, and drama. Possible texts include Daughters of the Dust (screenplay, not novel) by Julie Dash, Dragon Ladies, ed. by Sonia Shah, E-mails from Scheherazad by Mohja Kahf, Gardens in the Dunes by Leslie Marmon Silko, The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros, Scheherazade's Legacy by Susan Darraj, The Woman Warrior by Maxine Hong Kingston, and This Bridge We Call Home, ed. by Gloria Anzaldua and AnaLouise Keating. (HL, GE3) Miranda

ENGL 413A (3) - Senior Research and Writing: Personal Writing and Testimonial - topical description - This course examines self-writing from the classical to the contemporary periods, considering both how selfhood, as represented in texts, changes over time, and how the genre of autobiography conforms to certain principles. The course is grounded in the classic of autobiographical writing, Augustine's Confessions. After considering how Augustine handles questions about authorization, identity, audience, and memory, we build a set of key terms to apply to subsequent readings. We then take up personal essays, studying Montaigne's turn to thinking of knowledge as based in personal observation and self-analysis. Against these, we compare texts written out of repressive circumstances, namely, heresy trial in the 16th century, trying to understand how questions of identity, narrative, and audience work in these very different kinds of autobiographical texts. We then go through a series of contemporary personal essays and texts about writing memoirs (some chosen by students), building a sense of what can be done in short prose pieces today. Alongside reading, we develop our own autobiographical texts, responding to weekly exercises that lead to a final, creative piece or an academic essay on self-writing. Gertz

ENGL 413B (3) - Senior Research and Writing: Lyric Poetry: Medieval to Modern - topical description - Lyric poetry has been variously defined as the "utterance that is overheard" (Mill), the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth), and an "intensely subjective and personal expression" (Hegel). One of our richest and oldest literary genres, the lyric is notoriously difficult to define on account of its long and diverse history, which extends back to ancient Greek melic and choral verse. This course affords students with a wide perspective on lyric poetry and better their understanding of the genre's development through several major periods of English literary production. Much attention is devoted to reading (and pronouncing!) Old and Middle English models, including long narrative romances that incorporate short lyrics, such as Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. From there we progress through the Renaissance and beyond, paying special attention to the Metaphysical poets (e.g., Donne, Herbert, Crashaw) and the Romantics (e.g., Shelley, Wordsworth, Keats). Students ultimately have the opportunity to pursue lyric poets of their choosing and direct our investigation of the changing face of the genre throughout English literary history. Jirsa

ENGL 413C (3) - Senior Research and Writing: Poetry and Community - topical description - How do people use poetry? How does poetry itself resist being useful? In this section we read a series of poems, manifestoes, and critical statements that argue for poetry as entertainment, education, and a vehicle for social change in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Students are also required to volunteer two hours per week in a poetry-related service placement arranged by Aubrey Shinofield, Service Learning Coordinator. Student research projects, commenced at midterm, may spring from our joint readings or the service placements. Alternately, they may concern other, related phenomena: independent presses and magazines as communities, poetry in medicine, poetry performance, poetry's role in personal and public ritual, internet-based poetry communities, poetry's role in social movements, and contemporary educational projects such as Poets in the Schools and the National Poetry Recitation Project. Wheeler

Environmental Studies (ENV)

ENV 111A (1) - Service Learning: Environmental Education - topical description - Follows a service-learning process, which combines teaching, learning, and reflecting. The majority of the course is spent at Boxerwood Gardens, an arboretum and nature center in Rockbridge County, whose mission it is to provide environmental education experiences to visiting 3rd-, 4th-, and 6th-grade classes, especially related to habitat, soil, and water topics. Staff 

ENV 111B (1) - Service Learning: Community Supported Agriculture - topical description - Follows a service-learning process, which combines teaching, learning, and reflecting. The majority of the course is spent at a Rockbridge Grown local producers' affiliate in Rockbridge County, whose mission it is to promote the sustainable production and consumption of local agricultural products and services in order to nourish regional economic, environmental, and physical health. Staff

First-Year Seminars (various disciplines, title has FS:, limit is typically 12-15)

ARTS 160A (3) - FS: Photography I - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. An introduction to the technical and creative principles of black-and-white photography as a fine art medium, with an emphasis on composition, exposure, and darkroom technique. In addition to the studio projects, this course includes reading, writing, and discussion components to introduce students to contemporary issues and image makers in fine art photography. Lab fee and 35 mm SLR film camera required. (HA) Bowden

CHEM 133 (3) - FS: Describing Nature - Cancelled

GEOL 100C (4) - FS: General Geology: Field Emphasis - topical description - Washington and Lee is surrounded by some of the most interesting and classical geology of the entire Appalachian Mountain system. The campus lies right in the middle of the Great Valley of Virginia, within easy reach of the Blue Ridge Province and the Allegheny Mountains. This courses takes advantage of our superb location, traveling to a new field site for each class meeting (including Goshen Pass, North Mountain, Devil's Marbleyard, Panther Falls, Island Ford Cave, and the Blue Ridge Mountains). We conduct a "hands-on" study of the basic principles of geology while unraveling the geologic history of the area. During the term, the class convenes for blocks of time to promote class discussions and to undertake laboratory and field-based investigations using maps, rocks and minerals, laboratory and computational techniques, and scientific writing. This course is appropriate for those students curious about their natural world who enjoy spending time outdoors. Laboratory course credit. (SL) Greer

LACS 180 (3) - FS: Rockin' las Americas: Popular Music as Social History and Cultural Affirmation – topical description Spanish-language experience helpful but not required. From mambo, salsa, merengue, and bachata to Latin rock and "Bilingual Anthems and Crossover Jams", this evening seminar (7:05-9:05 pm, Monday & Thursday) is designed as a journey through the modern musical and corresponding sociopolitical landscape of Latin America and the Caribbean. Through film, YouTube video, and scholarly study, we explore the region’s rich musical history and how it has both reflected and shaped important local, national, and regional sociopolitical realities (including its influence on Elvis Presley), serving as vehicle for protest and for expression and affirmation of cultural identity. (HU) Jobe

PHIL 180 (3) - FS: Science, Nature, Self, and Culture – topical description - Evolutionary theory, genetics, psychology, and neuroscience - all have transformed and continue to transform how we understand what it means to be human and lead a good, ethical life. Is there such a thing as human nature? How much of who we are depends on our genes, how much on environment? What are we to do with the rapidly increasing knowledge of (and resultant technologies involving) the human animal? This seminar examines such questions as we think about human nature, morality, and the place of science and technology in culture. (HU) Gregory

POL 180 (3) - FS: The Presidential Election of 2008 -  topical description - This seminar revolves around the 2008 US presidential campaign. Students place the election in context by reading The Election That Changed America (Gould), Politics Lost (Klein), The Thirteen American Arguments: Enduring Debates That Define and Inspire Our Country (Fineman), and books by the major-party candidates. Students also analyze newspaper, journal, and magazine articles which evaluate the issues and events, and participate in out-of-class activities including watching candidate debates and election results and attending presentations by prominent guest speakers. Graded assignments include short papers on the candidates and issues and a long paper at the conclusion of the term evaluating the just-completed election process. (SS2) Strong

POV 101A (3) - FS: Poverty and Human Capability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction - topical description - This first-year seminar is limited in size to 15 students. An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty but also considers poverty as a global problem. This seminar parallels POV 101. Optional revision of papers and other optional assignments are available in both courses with the expectation that students in 101A frequently take advantage of these options. First Years who prefer a class with more experienced students should take 101 where they receive the same attention from the instructor in a slightly larger class setting. First Years who prefer the somewhat more intense seminar setting with grade-level peers only should enroll in 101A. Students in both courses are expected to perform orally as well as in writing. (HU) Beckley

French (FREN)

FREN 331 (3) - Etudes thématiques: Regards sur la ville – topical description - Prerequisites: French 273 or equivalent and permission of the instructor. This seminar explores the representation of the city in a multidisciplinary perspective. Readings include historical, sociological, political, urbanistic, and journalistic texts as well as literature, paintings, songs, comics, and films. Students develop their critical skills, their knowledge of language and culture, and their oral and written expression in French. (HL, GE3) Frégnac-Clave

FREN 341 (3) – Sur les traces de Cléopâtre captive et Maître Pathelin: comédies et tragédies de Corneille Racine et Molière – topical description - Prerequisite: French 331 or French 332 or permission of instructor. This course offers an overview of the French theater's evolution from its inception in the Middle Ages until the end of the 17th century of which six plays constitute the major focus of study. Illustrating the classical dichotomy of comedy and tragedy, as well as that of religious and secular tragedy, works analyzed in class and in three essays are the highly comical, relatively short medieval Farce de maître Pathelin, two excerpted 16th-century tragedies, two comedies by Molière, two tragedies by Corneille and two tragedies by Racine. (HL, GE3) Fralin

Geology (GEOL)

GEOL 100C (4) - FS: General Geology: Field Emphasis - topical description - Washington and Lee is surrounded by some of the most interesting and classical geology of the entire Appalachian Mountain system. The campus lies right in the middle of the Great Valley of Virginia, within easy reach of the Blue Ridge Province and the Allegheny Mountains. This courses takes advantage of our superb location, traveling to a new field site for each class meeting (including Goshen Pass, North Mountain, Devil's Marbleyard, Panther Falls, Island Ford Cave, and the Blue Ridge Mountains). We conduct a "hands-on" study of the basic principles of geology while unraveling the geologic history of the area. During the term, the class convenes for blocks of time to promote class discussions and to undertake laboratory and field-based investigations using maps, rocks and minerals, laboratory and computational techniques, and scientific writing. This course is appropriate for those students curious about their natural world who enjoy spending time outdoors. Laboratory course credit. (SL) Greer

GEOL 275 (3) - Introductory Geophysics - Cancelled

German (GERM)

Greek (GR)

History (HIST)

HIST 195 (3) – History of Africa to 1800 – topical description - African history is uniquely challenging: there is simply more of it than in other areas of the world, and at the same time, there is less documentary evidence for it than for other areas of the world. In this class, we follow the intellectual journeys of historians studying Africa, beginning with a close examination of the evidence for human origins in Africa. We then study the development of agriculture and pastoralism, the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Nubia, the spread of Christianity and Islam during the classical and postclassical eras, the medieval civilizations of the East African coast and the West African savanna, and the linking of Africa to the "Atlantic World" during the early modern era, including the trans-Atlantic slave trade. This class places African history firmly within the broader framework of world history and human interactions across regional boundaries. (HU, GE4B) Jennings

HIST 329 (3) – France: Old Regime and Revolution – topical description - This course covers the history of France from Louis XIV to the Revolution. The first part of the course covers the Old Regime including the rise of the absolutist state, the Enlightenment, political struggles over religion and taxation, and the economic, social and cultural changes of the 18th century. The second part surveys the Revolution, including its outbreak and radicalization, Counter-Revolution and the Terror, and ends with Napoleon's coup. (HU, GE4B) Horowitz

HIST 389 (3) – The Rwandan Genocide and the World – topical description - During the spring and summer of 1994, the government of Rwanda carried out a painstakingly detailed plan to exterminate an ethnic minority group. The extremist-controlled army, along with allied militias and ordinary civilians, killed more than 800,000 people, the worst mass killing since the Holocaust. In this seminar, we seek to understand the Rwandan genocide from multiple perspectives. We study the political and social history of Rwanda from pre-colonial times to the years after independence. We examine the genocide from the perspective of UN peacekeepers, the international community, the organizers, killers and accomplices, and the Rwandan and foreign individuals who stepped forward to save lives while others stood aside. We examine the diverse ideas that scholars have put forward in explaining the genocide, its causes, and its aftermath. Finally, we attempt to place Rwanda in a larger, international history of efforts to understand, prevent, and intervene in large-scale human-rights crises. (HU, GE4B) Jennings

Interdepartmental (INTR)

INTR 201 (1) - Information Technology Literacy - Cancelled - This course, required for all Williams School majors, cannot be offered in Fall 2008, due to a change in one of the software products that drive the course. It will be offered in the winter term, with unlimited capacity for those students who need to take it.

INTR 345/BUS 345 (3) - Business Ethics: The Ethics of Globalization – topical description - Prerequisite: Junior standing. Meets upper-level international business requirement for business majors; philosophy elective for philosophy majors. This team-taught, interdisciplinary seminar examines a number of moral and ethical issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected - economically, culturally, and politically - we are faced with a host of new questions about how to conceive of the ethical responsibilities of individuals, multi-national corporations, nation-states, and global institutions within this new global framework. Our aim in this course is to identify and clarify some of these questions, and to consider some different approaches that have been taken in answering them. Some of the specific topics that will be addressed include: international trade and international business; global poverty and global inequality; immigration and the significance of national borders; humanitarian intervention; global warming and global justice; multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism; and global governance. Readings are drawn from a wide variety of fields, including philosophy, business, economics, political science, and public policy, among others. The faculty come from business and philosophy, and guest lecturers have expertise in the fields of human rights, environmental ethics, and political philosophy. Reiter, Smith

Italian (ITAL)

Japanese (JAPN)

Journalism (JOUR)

Latin (LATN)

Latin American and Caribbean Studies (LACS)

LACS 180 (3) - FS: Rockin' las Americas: Popular Music as Social History and Cultural Affirmation – topical description Spanish-language experience helpful but not required. From mambo, salsa, merengue, and bachata to Latin rock and "Bilingual Anthems and Crossover Jams", this evening seminar (7:05-9:05 pm, Monday & Thursday) is designed as a journey through the modern musical and corresponding sociopolitical landscape of Latin America and the Caribbean. Through film, YouTube video, and scholarly study, we explore the region’s rich musical history and how it has both reflected and shaped important local, national, and regional sociopolitical realities (including its influence on Elvis Presley), serving as vehicle for protest and for expression and affirmation of cultural identity. (HU) Jobe

Literature in Translation (LIT)

LIT 221 (3) - Japanese Literature in Translation - Cancelled.

Mathematics (MATH)

MATH 101A (3) - Calculus I – topical description - An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. This class meets four days per week. (FM, GE5B) 

MATH 101B (3) - Calculus I: A First Course – topical description - Students who have taken calculus in high school cannot take this course. An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. This class is restricted to and specially tailored for those who are Beginning their study of calculus. This class meets four days per week. (FM, GE5B) 

MATH 101D (3) - Calculus I: Calculus Explorations – topical description - If you throw a ball up, which is greater, its ascent time or descent time? How long does it take to drain a tank? Can your bank compound interest continuously? Is there any chaos in calculus? How well does a tangent line really approximate a graph? What are the three pillars of calculus and how are they used? Through exploration of a variety of applications, this course will reinforce your calculus skills, while introducing you to some useful new ideas and techniques for problem solving. This class is only for those students who have taken calculus in high school and meets three days a week. (FM, GE5B) 

MATH 101E (3) - Calculus I: Calculus and Sailing – topical description - Traditional calculus topics, including limits, differentiation and integration, is discussed in the context of sailing. Although prior exposure to calculus is required, no prior knowledge of sailing is assumed. This class is only for those students who have taken calculus in high school and meets three days a week. (FM, GE5B)

Medieval and Renaissance Studies (MRST)

Military Science (MS)

Music (MUS)

Neuroscience (NEUR)

NEUR 395/BIOL 396 (3) - Stem-Cell Biology – topical description - Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 220. An investigation of the origin, biology, and potential of embryonic and adult stem cells for repair and regeneration. Applications to Parkinson's disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, myocardial repair, and liver regeneration are examined. Lectures, discussions of the stem cell literature, and case studies are included. Wielgus.

Philosophy (PHIL)

PHIL 144 (3) - 20th-Century Philosophy - expansion of course description - This course introduces some of the major issues, movements and figures in 20th-century Anglo-European philosophy.  After a peek at DuBois and the "invisible" issues of race, class and gender, it samples the early analysts (Moore, Russell), puzzles over Wittgenstein's Tractatus, explores logical positivism (Carnap) and pragmatism (Dewey), the later Russell and Wittgenstein, and ordinary language analysis (Austin); it delves into phenomenology (Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty) and existentialism (Sartre, de Beauvoir), and concludes with a look at seven recent American, English, and French philosophers (Davidson, Foot, Rawls, MacIntyre, Foucault, Derrida, Irigaray). Guest philosophers help us understand and appreciate the rich diversity of philosophy during the previous century. (HU, GE4c) Sessions 

PHIL 180 (3) - FS: Science, Nature, Self, and Culture – topical description - Evolutionary theory, genetics, psychology, and neuroscience - all have transformed and continue to transform how we understand what it means to be human and lead a good, ethical life. Is there such a thing as human nature? How much of who we are depends on our genes, how much on environment? What are we to do with the rapidly increasing knowledge of (and resultant technologies involving) the human animal? This seminar examines such questions as we think about human nature, morality, and the place of science and technology in culture. (HU, GE4C) Gregory

PHIL 251 (3) - Existentialism - New permanent course description - Overview of Existential thought in the 19th and 20th Century. The course presents core Existentialist thinkers and their critics, e.g. Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Sartre, de Beauvoir, Fanon, Heidegger and Camus, and explores important Existential themes such as human experience, anxiety, freedom, authenticity and absurdity. (HU, GE4C)

PHIL 395 (3) - Virtue Ethics – topical description - We examine the recent movement toward virtue ethics, as an approach to ethics that contrasts with, for example, Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and also with, for example, intuitionism and noncognitivism. We read some of the seminal articles that sparked this renewed interest in virtue ethics, and then examine a fully developed neo-Aristotelian virtue ethical account (and some criticisms that have been raised to this account. (HU, GE4C)

Physical Education (PE)

Physical Education - IMPORTANT -- Read the instructions for PE registration at
registrar.wlu.edu/registration/regpe.htm


and the departmental information at
athletics.wlu.edu/physical_education/

Students may express a preference for up to three skills courses as part of web registration. These preferences will be examined after the academic schedule is set and, if open and not in conflict with the academic courses, one may be placed in the schedule. Changes or additional sections may still be handled during the drop/add period.

The following Physical Education courses have an additional charge, billed to the student's account after registration: PE 151 Golf; PE 170 Horsemanship; PE 177 Dance Conditioning; PE 179 Modern Dance; PE 304 First Aid/CPR.

Physics (PHYS)

Politics (POL)

POL 180 (3) - FS: The Presidential Election of 2008 -  topical description - This seminar revolves around the 2008 US presidential campaign. Students place the election in context by reading The Election That Changed America (Gould), Politics Lost (Klein), The Thirteen American Arguments: Enduring Debates That Define and Inspire Our Country (Fineman), and books by the major-party candidates. Students also analyze newspaper, journal, and magazine articles which evaluate the issues and events, and participate in out-of-class activities including watching candidate debates and election results and attending presentations by prominent guest speakers. Graded assignments include short papers on the candidates and issues and a long paper at the conclusion of the term evaluating the just-completed election process. (SS2) Strong

POL 295A (3) - The European Union & Integrationtopical description - Prerequisite: One 100-level politics course or permission of the department head or instructor. Students may not register for Politics 295A if they have already taken Politics 295 with Prof. Thompson. This course constitutes an introduction to how European integration (the EU) can be understood and analysed. It presents the general ideas, tendencies and developments in the integration process. The historical development of the European Communities is addressed and analysed, focusing on the post-war period through the current debate on the treaty establishing a Constitution of Europe. Various EU policy areas and the role of the EU institutions is discussed. Contemporary political administrative reforms, the recurrent enlargements of the European Union, and the general effects of the integration process are other areas under scrutiny. Theoretical perspectives  are presented about how to understand the integration process. (SS2) Nilsson

POL 295B (3) - Strategic & Tactical Studies – topical description - No prerequisites. Open to majors and non-majors of all classes. Recommended for students interested in diplomatic, military, public policy graduate study / career. We apply decision theory, risk analysis and collective-action theory to explain / predict foreign policy outcomes of states, IGOs, NGOsn and non-state movements at the strategic and tactical levels of analysis. If time permits, we cover data mining of mass-movement websites, legal and otherwise. Students prepare a simulated briefing paper (country risk profile) for the US National (Homeland) Security Council. (For one example, see National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction, www.whitehouse.gov/nsc). (SS2) McCaughrin 

POL 295C (3) - Theory of International Politics: The English School – topical description - This course introduces students to the "English School," a traditional approach to international relations theory which emphasizes the concept of state systems and their evolution over time and across civilizations. The approach is intensively historical and is concerned with normative issues, the role of international law, and issues linked to international political economy. Parallels between the contemporary English School and traditional 18th- and 19th- century and early 20th-century American perspectives are considered. We first analyze the rise and development of state systems such as ancient Sumer, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, and China through the modern European state system. Then the contemporary, evolving international state system and "international society" are addressed. Key concepts such as sovereignty, anarchy, use of force, war and peace, diplomacy, and international law are explored. Careful attention is paid to the present international situation and emerging international system through readings and discussion of current global affairs. (SS2) Kiracofe 

POL 335 (3) - The Presidency - Cancelled

POL 396 (3) - Contemporary Political Philosophy: The Theologico-Political Problem – topical description - Prerequisite: Politics 111 or permission of the instructor. Leo Strauss is one of the most discussed (though not often read) political philosophers of our time. Strauss is vilified by some as the architect of the Bush Administration foreign policy, a closet Nietzschean intent on imposing the rule of the superman over the unassuming herd, the founder of an academic cult, and the father of neo-conservatism. Yet he is simultaneously praised for having single-handedly revived the study of political philosophy in the face of "scientific" attempts to banish it from the academy, the study of political theology, and the tension between reason and revelation. This course introduces students to Leo Strauss with special attention to the "theological-political" problem, the central preoccupation of his scholarly work. (SS2) Velásquez 

Portuguese (PORT)

Poverty and Human Capability Studies (POV) 

POV 101A (3) - FS: Poverty and Human Capability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction - topical description - This first-year seminar is limited in size to 15 students. An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty but also considers poverty as a global problem. This seminar parallels POV 101. Optional revision of papers and other optional assignments are available in both courses with the expectation that students in 101A frequently take advantage of these options. First Years who prefer a class with more experienced students should take 101 where they receive the same attention from the instructor in a slightly larger class setting. First Years who prefer the somewhat more intense seminar setting with grade-level peers only should enroll in 101A. Students in both courses are expected to perform orally as well as in writing. (HU) Beckley

Psychology (PSYC)

PSYC 295 (3) - Current Advances in Psychological Science: How We Learn and Remember - topical description - No prerequisites. Acquiring, manipulating, and retrieving information to guide behavior is central to our daily lives. This course introduces the primary concepts of human learning and memory through an historical exploration of classic and contemporary approaches to the study learning and memory in the past century. Topics include a consideration of the classic findings of Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner as well as more recent work such as Bandura's social learning theory. Real-world features of memory function including state-dependent remembering, context effects, 'false memories', computer metaphors of information processing, and forgetting are also discussed. No previous experience in psychology is assumed. May be applied as degree credit toward the psychology major leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree. Frye

PSYC 395 (3) - Children & Media – topical description - Prerequisite: Psychology 113. This course provides a examination of the theoretical and developmental issues related to children’s media use (primarily television) within a framework of attention and cognitive processing. Topics include: the history of children’s media; how children use, understand, and react to media; the effects of media on children; and the application of research to media policy and production. Pempek

Public Speaking (PSPK)

Religion (REL)

REL 222 (Law 355) (3) - Law and Religion - newly offered course - Open to undergraduates and law students. Drawing on examples from diverse periods and legal cultures, this seminar addresses 'law' and 'religion' as two realms of life that have much shared history and continue to intersect in the modern world. Several important topics in comparative law and jurisprudence are covered, including authority and legitimacy, the relation between custom and statute, legal pluralism, church-state relations, and competing models of constitutional secularism. A selective survey of legal systems and practices rooted in particular religious traditions is followed by an examination of how secular legal systems conceptualize religion and balance the protection of religious freedom with their standards of equity and neutrality. (SS4, GE6D) Lubin

REL 287 (3) - Central Asian Islam and The Religions of The Silk Road - topical description - Central Asia has long been a crossroads of peoples and ideas, connecting India, China, the Middle East, and the northern steppes of what is now Russia. This course explores this region's rich religious history and diversity in three parts: the religions of the ancient "Silk Road"" (including Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Manichaeism); Islam's arrival in Central Asia and how Islam was transformed in the process; and the response of Central Asia's modern Muslim communities to the advent of colonialism, Communism, Economic Liberalism, and politically-mobilized Islam. (HU, GE4d) Hatcher

Romance Languages (ROML)

ROML 295 (1) - Topic: Food Blogs in Contemporary France - topical description - This course allows the student to continue to work on French language skills while developing cultural knowledge of France. The research contributes to Professor Dixon's research on food culture in contemporary France by researching and analyzing food blogs, resulting in an annotated directory of blogs that could be used for instruction in other courses. In addition, at the end of term, the student will propose hypotheses about current food-ways in France and possibly contribute to a research paper and co-present at a conference. Dixon
 

Russian (RUSS)

Russian Area Studies (RAS)

Sociology (SOC)

Spanish (SPAN)

SPAN 397 (3) - Peninsular Seminar:The Myth of El Cid – topical description - Prerequisites: SPAN 215 and 220. This course studies the process of myth making, as exemplified in portrayals of the real-life Castilian warrior Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, El Cid (1045-1099). The first two texts are medieval epic poems (read in bilingual English/Old Spanish editions): the Cantar de mio Cid, in which the hero is a mature, even-tempered Castilian warrior; and the Mocedades de Rodrigo, in which Rodrigo is a rebellious youth. Next come the popular ballads that recreate the heroic image of the Cid and go on to form the basis of the classic Renaissance drama by Guillén de Castro, Las Mocedades del Cid (1612). The final heroic portrayal draws from all these texts, and from the imagination of Hollywood, in a film made especially for American audiences, El Cid (1961), starring Charlton Heston and Sophia Loren. These portrayals are examined from the perspective that they are molded more by the social circumstances, hopes, and desires of their authors and audiences than by historical fact. (HL, GE3) 

SPAN 398 (3) - Spanish-American Seminar: Re-Inventing History: The Artistic Rendering of Spanish-America's Past – topical description - Prerequisites: SPAN 207 and 215. A multi-genre seminar that examines the diverse ways contemporary Spanish-American artists portray, revise, or demystify key verifiable personages that have shaped its historic reality. In particular, the material focuses on the interpretive rendering of Columbus (Carpentier's El arpa y la sombra), Cortés (the murals of Rivera), Sor Juana (Bemberg's Yo la peor de todas), Bolivar (García Márquez' El general en su laberinto), and Trujillo (Vargas Llosa's La fiesta del chivo) as well as the broader depiction of "real" characters found in Galeano's Memoria del fuego and Neruda's Canto General. In so doing, the course aims to question the dynamic tension between aesthetics and social thesis. Given the advanced seminar format, students engage fully in discussion, complete extensive reading assignments in Spanish, and offer written analyses. (HL, GE3) Barnett

Theater (THTR)

THTR 237 (3) - Scenic Design - Cancelled

University Scholars (UNIV)

Women's Studies (WST) Students interested in Women's Studies should plan to take Interdepartmental 120 (3), Introduction to Women's Studies and Feminist Theory, in the spring. This course now meets the requirement for credits (but not for one of the two areas) under GE 4 and for FDR HU. A list of spring-term courses from other departments that qualify for Women's Studies credits appear on the program Web site: http://womensstudies.wlu.edu/.