Official Notification of Changes Approved
Since Publication of the 2008-2009 Catalog

(Updated April 8, 2009)
New courses
Spring 2010 new courses
Revised courses
Deleted courses
Revised degree, major, and program requirements
New minors
Policy Changes
Miscellaneous Information

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COURSE INFORMATION:

Course Additions                  Spring 2010 new courses below

 

Art Studio 309 Studio Seminar: Methods in Contemporary Art Practice (3) Prerequisites: Studio art major and permission of the instructor. This course is a critique-based studioseminar designed to prepare students for the senior thesis in studio arts and built around a term-long visual arts project responding to current trends in contemporary art. This seminar introduces a theme or topic, supported by readings, films, and image presentations, as the focus of class discussions exploring and highlighting the work of relevant contemporary artists. Students develop and plan a body of work inspired by or in response to this theme. Group and individual critiques assess each student=s progress towards this goal. Beavers

Anthropology 180 (3) - FS:The Wired Self: Communication, Technologies, Society, and You (3) This course is an in-depth investigation into how new communication technologies B most specifically the mobile phone and the Internet B affect society and personhood, in a cross-cultural perspective. Students enrich their understanding of the personal, social, and global impact of the communication technologies that they use every day and usually take for granted. This seminar is discussion and project based. Students present readings in class and produce original ethnographic research on local use of mobile phones and the Internet. (SS4) Goluboff

Anthropology 223 (3) - Social Sciences and Religion. Scholars still debate the appropriate relationship between social science and religion, with the two most extreme positions assuming the impossibility of a social science of religion, on the one hand, and denial of the validity of religious claims, on the other. Beginning with an examination of the fundamental debates regarding the nature and goals of social scientific inquiry, we examine classical and contemporary analyses of religion in psychology, sociology, and anthropology. The major social scientific paradigms - materialist, functionalist, and phenomenological - differ in their implications for understanding and explaining religious phenomena; they provide the context for our consideration of questions of reductionism, explanation vs. understanding, insider vs. outsider orientations, and the nature and limits to truth claims made both by social scientists and religious devotees and scholars. Markowitz. Winter

Anthropology 288 (3) - Childhood. This course explores the experience of childhood cross culturally. It investigates how different societies conceptualize children, and our readings progress through representations of the life cycle. Beginning with the topic of conception, the courses moves through issues pertaining to the fetus, infants, children, and adolescents. Discussions of socialization, discipline, emotion, education, gender, and sexuality are included, and special attention is given to the effects of war, poverty, social inequality, and disease on children and youth. Goluboff. Winter 2009 and alternate years.

Anthropology 395 (3) - Senior Seminar Anthropological Analysis. Prerequisite: Sociology 375 (Politics 375) or permission of the instructor. This course provides students with a capstone experience in anthropology. It builds on and expands students' knowledge of anthropological theory, methods, and interpretation by drawing on diverse published case studies in cultural anthropology and archaeology, and on students' experiences in the course. Each student designs and implements an original research project in an area of particular interest within cultural anthropology or archaeology. This process involves students thinking through and choosing among theoretical perspectives, research methods, analytical approaches, and interpretive media individually and collaboratively . Students also reflect on key ethical issues in anthropology, assess their anthropological foundation, and consider the ways in which their educational experiences have encouraged them to think about global cultural diversity and their own positions in western society. Bell, Markowitz. Winter 2012.

Art History 348: Chinese Export Porcelain and the China Trade, 1500 to 1900 (3). This course covers the development and history of Chinese export porcelain made for the European and American markets and its role as a commodity in the China Trade. Students examine Chinese export porcelain from several different perspectives, including art history, material culture, and economic history. Fuchs. Fall 2009 and alternate years

Art History 398: Museum Studies (3). An exploration of the history, philosophy and practical aspects of museums. Topics of discussion include governance and administration, collections, exhibitions and education. The course will alternate weekly readings and class discussion with field trips to regional museums. Requires short papers and a project. (HA, GE4a) Grover and Hobbs. Spring 2009 only

Biology 222 (4), Animal Development. Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113. This course investigates cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate invertebrate and vertebrate development. Topics include fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, axis specification, patterning, organogenesis, morphogens, and stem cells. Students examine research strategies used to understand the basic principles underlying development such as gene function, cell signaling, and signal transduction during embryogenesis. Laboratory sessions focus on experimental manipulations of early invertebrate and vertebrate embryos and emphasize student-designed research projects. Watson. Fall

Biology 332 (4) - Plant Functional Ecology. Prerequisite: BIOL 111, 113, and 295, a review of pertinent literature in the previous winter term. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Information regarding the specific course topic and field trip schedule is made available in the fall. Through novel research projects in a variety of field settings (e.g., on-campus, Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains, The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem), this field-based laboratory course covers topics which investigate the vital roles that plants play in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Topics focus on the responses of native plants to environmental stresses such as global climate change (elevated temperature and carbon dioxide and drought), herbivory, and invasive species. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments using a variety of species from intact plant communities. The review of the pertinent literature is used to develop and conduct a term research project. Hamilton. Spring

Business Administration 197 (0) - Washington and Lee Student Consulting. Pass/fail basis only. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. This co-curricular student organization provides pro bono consulting services to businesses and not-for-profits. Experiential learning draws from business fields such as marketing, finance, accounting, e commerce, database management, business strategy, and human resources. In addition to working on various projects, students gain experience managing the organization. Students must participate in a competitive application process in order to participate. Straughan, Oliver. Fall, Winter, Spring

Chemistry 133 (3) FS: Describing Nature. This writing-based seminar considers how scientists describe natural phenomena and express scientific theories in terms of mathematics, graphical representations, and prose. Students examine a collection of topics from physics, chemistry and biology and examine how accepted explanations of these phenomena in terms of mathematical models are verified by experiment and then translated to concepts using ordinary language. In essence, if a scientific theory is expressed as an equation, how can we understand it in terms of pictures and words? Topics include entropy, the uncertainty principle, and definitions of life. (SC) Desjardins

Chemistry 156: Science in Art (3). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. This course develops students' fundamental understanding of certain physical, chemical, biological, and geological concepts and utilizes that vocabulary and knowledge to discuss 17th-century Dutch Art. The emphasis is on key aspects of optics, light, and chemical bonding needed to understand how a painting "works" and how art conservators analyze paintings in terms of conservation and authenticity using techniques such as X-ray radiography, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, infrared microscopy, infrared reflectography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, UV photography, and laser ablation methods. When possible, the course develops modern notions of science with those of the 17th century in order to see how 17th-century science influenced 17th-century art. Uffelman. Winter 2010 and alternate years.

Chemistry 191 (3) - Science of Cooking. An introduction to the structure of molecules as well as their inter- and intramolecular interactions, with an emphasis on those species of importance to food and cooking. Chemical reactivity as it relates to cooking, food preservation, and spoilage is also discussed. Coursework includes cooking and food-based experiments as well as field trips to local food production facilities. This course may not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for Chemistry 295 when the topic was culinary chemistry. (SC, GE5c) France. Spring 2009

Chemistry 345 (3) Advanced Biochemistry. Prerequisite: Either Chemistry 342, or Chemistry 341 and Biology 220. A more advanced treatment of current topics in biochemistry. Specific topics vary by year but may include enzyme/ribozyme kinetics and mechanisms, signaling pathways, biomolecular transport, chromatin structure/function, RNA processing pathways, and regulation of gene expression. LaRiviere. Spring 2008 and alternate years

Chemistry 401 (1), 402 (2), 403 (3) - Directed Individual Study. Prerequisite or corequisite: 16 credits in chemistry or departmental permission. Advanced work and reading in topics selected by the instructor and meeting the special needs of advanced students, in accordance with departmental guidelines (available from chemistry faculty). May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Classics 208 (3), The Classical Epic Tradition. In this course, we read some of the most famous stories of the Western world, from the Iliad and the Odyssey, to Milton's Paradise Lost and Joyce's Ulysses, via Vergil's Aeneid and Lucan's Civil War. All of these works are epic narratives, each presenting a different concept of the hero, and yet, at the same time, participating in a coherent, ongoing, and unfinished tradition. Questions explored include: the problematic nature of the hero; the relation between poetry and violence; the nature of a literary tradition. (HL, GE3) Crotty. Fall 2008 and every third year

Classics 224 (3) - The World of Late Antiquity. This course introduces students to the historical period between the close of the ancient world and the rise of the Middle Ages c. 250 to 650 AD). Students read primary sources and explore the historical evidence in order to investigate the reigning historical model of "Decline and Fall" inherited from Edward Gibbon and others, and study the development of Christianity and Judaism during this period. Finally, the course investigates the formation of Europe and the rise of Islam. (HU, GE4b) Johnson. Spring

Computer Science 102 (4) - Introduction to Computational Modeling. This course provides a hands-on understanding of the computational methods that support science and technology now and that will be essential for success in the science, engineering, and business worlds of the near future. The central theme of the course is building computational models of the processes that surround us every day, from the effects of drugs on the body to the formation of galaxies in the universe to the interactions of nations in the global economy. Classroom lectures and textbook readings are supplemented with lab exercises implementing the models using state-of-the-art software tools. (SC, GE5c) Levy. Spring 2009 only

Computer Science 297 (3) - Topics in Computer Science. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Readings and conferences for a student or students on topics agreed upon by the directing staff. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. A maximum of six credits may be used toward the major requirements. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Dance 240 (3) - Contemporary Modern Dance History. This course is a study of the manifestations of American modern dance from the beginning of the 20th century to the present and. Students explore the relationship between dance and developments in U.S. culture and study the innovators of the art form and their techniques, writings, and art works through readings, video and lectures. (HA, GE4a) Davies. Winter 2010 and alternate years

Dance 330 (3) - Experiential Anatomy. This class is a study of human motion as it relates to the locomotor and physical activities of the dancer. The course covers the planes of the body, vocabulary of the skeleton, and specific muscles, their actions, and how they relate to the dancer's body. Injury prevention through alignment and proper movement is considered as well as the reversal of body alienation. Attention is given to the application of course information to technique class and performance. (HA, GE4a). Davies. Fall 2009 and alternate years

Dance 403 (3) - Directed Individual Study. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Specialized applied research in dance. This course requires study through both practical experience in technique as well as a product-oriented experience through written work analyzing the historical and kinesthetic aspects of movement. A performance and written product are the results. May not be repeated. Davies.

English 240 (3) - Arthurian Legend. Surveys the origins and development of the legend of King Arthur, one of the most enduring traditions in Western literature. Readings commence with early Latin chronicles and Celtic sources before progressing to later medieval adaptations by Chrétien de Troyes, Marie de France, and Thomas Malory. Central characters and icons as Lancelot, Guinevere, the Round Table, and the Grail studied in light of moral, political, and theological questions. The course concludes with Tennyson's Idylls of the King and the place of Arthur's Camelot in Victorian England. All foreign language and most medieval texts are read in modern English translation. (HL, GE3) Jirsa. Winter 2009 and alternate years

English 309 (3) - Advanced Creative Writing: Memoir. Prerequisite: Three credits in English at the 200-level or above. A workshop in writing memoir, requiring regular writing practice and outside readings. Students read and study a range of memoir written in English; analyze literary forms and complex language; write imaginatively; respond critically in peer workshops orally and in writing; produce a portfolio of writing based on assignments. (HA, GE4a) Miranda

English 311 (3) - History of the English Language. Why do we say brought not brang? Why is children the plural of child or feet the plural of foot? What happened to the pronoun thou? How did the printing press change spoken language? This course pursues these and other questions by exploring of the linguistic history of the English language from its early Germanic origins through its present-day proliferation into World English(es). Particular attention is devoted to the internal development of English (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, graphics, and vocabulary) in the medieval and early modern periods. Coursework includes reading texts and facsimiles from a variety of historical periods and provenances and also exploring the linguistic, social, cultural, and historical forces that induce language change. No prior knowledge of foreign languages or linguistics is required or expected. Jirsa. Winter 2009 and alternate years

English 361 (3) - Native American Literatures. Prerequisite: Three credits in English at the 200-level or above. A study of American Indian literature, primarily from the 20th century but including some historical and pre-historical foundations (oral storytelling, early orations and essays). Texts and topics may vary, but this course poses questions about nation, identity, indigenous sovereignty, mythology and history, and the powers of story as both resistance and regeneration. Readings in poetry, fiction, memoir, and nonfiction prose. Authors may include Alexie, Harjo, Hogan, Erdrich, Silko, Chrystos, Ortiz, LeAnne Howe and Paula Gunn Allen. (HL, GE3) Miranda. Winter 2010 and every third year

Environmental Studies 250: Ethics, Ecology and Economics in Land-Use Practices: Surface Mining in Central Appalachia (4). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructors. This course examines environmental issues surrounding the practice of surface coal mining (especially mountaintop removal) in central Appalachia. Questions to be considered include: Do the environmental risks imposed on local communities raise ethical concerns of environmental justice? What are the impacts on local biodiversity? Are reclamation practices ecologically sound? What are the economic impacts within local communities? How does this practice affect national energy independence? Can we justify mountaintop mining in light of our obligations to future generations? We explore these questions through readings, film, and field trips to mining sites in Virginia and West Virginia. Cooper, Hurd. Spring 2009 and alternate years

First-Year Seminars: (see descriptions in alpha order of catalog listing)
Anthropology 180 (4) - FS: The Wired Self: Communication Technologies, Society, and You
Chemistry 133 (3) - FS: Describing Nature
Geology 100C (4) - FS: General Geology with Field Emphasis

History 180 (3) - FS: The Civil Rights Movement from Brown to Bakke
History 180 (3) - FS: The Fin-de-
siècle in Paris, Berlin, and Vienna
Literature in Translation (3) - FS: Carmen and Her Reincarnations in Opera and Film

Politics 180 (3) - FS: The Presidential Election of 2008
Poverty and Human Capability 101A (3) - FS: Poverty and Human Capability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction
Theater 180 (3) - FS: Hardboiled L.A.: Film Noir and the City of Angels
Theater 181 (3) - FS: Experimental Theater

French 401 (1), 402 (2), 403 (3) Directed Individual Study.  Prerequisites: At least nine credits of 300 level French and permission of the department head. Taught in French. Nature and content of course is determined by students' needs and by instructors acquainted with their earlier preparation and performance. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

History 175 (3) - History of Africa to 1800. Examination of the history and historiography of Africa from the origins of humankind to the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Topics include human evolution in Africa, development of agriculture and pastoralism, ancient civilizations of the Nile, African participation in spread of Christianity and Islam, empires of West Africa, Swahili city-states, and African participation in the economic and biological exchanges that transformed the Atlantic world. (HU, GE4b) Jennings. Fall 2010 and alternate years

History 176: History of Africa Since 1800 (3). Examination of the history and historiography of Africa from the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the present. Topics include pre-colonial states and societies, European colonial intrusions and African responses, development of modern political and social movements, decolonization, and the history of independent African nation-states during the Cold War and into the 21st century. (HU, GE4b) Jennings. Winter 2011 and alternate years

History 180 (3): The Civil Rights Movement from Brown to Bakke. This course surveys the Civil Rights movement in the United States from 1954 to 1978, It exposes first-year students to the major civil rights issues and demonstrates the problems of this period through examination of selected manuscript documents, and assigned readings of selected primary and secondary literature pertaining to this period. Class discussion and three essay assignments. (HU) DeLaney. Spring 2009

History 180 (3) - FS: The Fin-de-siècle in Paris, Berlin, and Vienna  Why did so many observers in the 1890s associate the "end of the century" with decadence, criminality, alcoholism, and sexual depravity? Why did this same decade give birth to so many of the social and cultural movements that have shaped the modern world? In this introductory level seminar, we analyze the impact of urbanization and technological progress on politics, literature, and the arts in three of Europe's greatest cultural centers. Topics include the artistic movements of naturalism and primitivism, the birth of modern feminism, the spread of Marxian socialism among workers, the critique of socialism and feminism by the Catholic Church, and Freud's campaign for the reform of "Victorian" sexual mores. Students write three short reaction papers on the assigned readings and a ten-page term paper on a topic of special interest to them. (HU) Patch

History 208 (3) - France: Old Regime and Revolution. Historical study of France from the reign of Louis XIV to the Revolution, tracing the changes to French society, culture and politics in the 17th and 18th centuries. Topics include absolutism under Louis XIV, the Enlightenment, socio-economic changes during the 18th century, and the Revolution. (HU, GE4b) Horowitz. Winter 2011 and alternate years

History 312 (3) - Seminar on Nazism and the Third Reich. Prerequisite: History 314 or 324 or permission of the instructor. Common readings introduce students to some of the most lively debates among scholars about the causes of the failure of democracy in the Weimar Republic, the mentality of Nazi leaders and followers, the nature of the regime created by the Nazis in 1933, the impact of the Third Reich on the position of women in German society, and the degree to which the German people supported this regime's policies of war and racial persecution. Students develop a research topic related to one of these debates for analysis in a substantial research paper utilizing both primary and secondary sources. (HU, GE4b) Patch. Winter 2010 and alternate years

History 319 (3) - Seminar on The Great War in History and Literature. Prerequisite: One course chosen from History 313, 318, and 323, or permission of the instructor. An advanced seminar in which students analyze different kinds of written accounts of the First World War (memoirs, autobiographical novels, poems, and diaries) by different kinds of participants, including common soldiers, government leaders, and women who worked on the "home front." In class discussions and two short papers, students evaluate the reliability of these witnesses and what the historian can learn from them about the psychological, cultural, and political consequences of the First World War in Great Britain, France, and Germany. Students choose one question raised in our common meetings for more detailed investigation in a substantial research paper integrating primary and secondary sources. (HU, GE4b) Patch. Winter 2009 and alternate years

History 377 (3) - Seminar: Rwanda and the World. Study of the political, social, and environmental history of Rwanda from pre-colonial times to the present, with a focus on the 1994 genocide. (HU, GE4b) Jennings. Fall 2010 and alternate years

Italian 113 (4) - Accelerated Elementary Italian. Prerequisite: Completion of 112 or equivalent in a Romance language. Preference is given to Romance Language majors. An accelerated course in elementary Italian emphasizing grammar and the skills of speaking, writing, reading, and listening comprehension and meeting five days per week. Staff. Fall

Italian 163 (4) - Accelerated Intermediate Italian. Prerequisite: Italian 113 or equivalent. This course develops intermediate communicative Italian vocabulary and active intermediate competence in the language. The traditional skills of foreign language instruction (structure, listening comprehension, reading, writing, and speaking) are stressed. This course meets five days per week. (FL, GE2) Staff. Winter

Journalism and Mass Communications 345: Media Ethics (3) - Prerequisite: Journalism 201 and junior standing. This course enables students to explore ethical challenges that arise within the various communication practices of contemporary media: journalism, public relations, advertising, documentary film, blogging and fictional programming. The course offers a grounding in moral reasoning and an understanding of professional ethics as an evolving response to changing social and industrial conditions in the media industries. Wasserman. Winter

Latin American and Caribbean Studies 195 (3) - Special Topics in Latin American and Caribbean Studies. A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme relevant to the overall understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean region, such as Hispanic Feminisms, the Indigenous Americas, or Shifting Borders, among others. As an introductory seminar, topics are selected with the purpose in mind to present the student with a broad, regional view within the scope of a restricted focus or medium. (FDR and GE designation varies with topic, as approved in advance) Staff.

Literature in Translation 180 (3) - FS: Carmen and Her Avatars Prerequisite: First-year students. An in-depth study of a major topos of Western culture, the mythical character Carmen, from the eponymous short story by Prosper Mérimée (1845) to her reincarnations on the opera stage and on screen. No knowledge of French, Spanish, or Russian is necessary, although speakers of foreign languages are encouraged to work with primary sources in the original text. (HL, GE3) Frégnac-Clave.

Philosophy 208 (3) - Philosophy of History. A consideration of the basic issues in philosophy of history. Selected readings from classical and contemporary sources, including Kant, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, and Hannah Arendt. (HU, GE4c) Lambert. Fall 2009 and alternate years

Philosophy 219 (3) - Philosophy of Sex. This course explores questions related to contemporary conceptions of sexuality and its proper role in our lives. Questions addressed include: What is the purpose of sex? Are sexual practices subject to normative evaluation on grounds of morality, aesthetics, and/or capacity to promote a flourishing human life? We consider the relation between sex and both intimacy and pleasure, viewed from the perspective of heterosexual women and men, and gay men and lesbians. What are our sexual practices and attitudes toward sex? What should they be like? (HU, GE4c) Bell. Fall

Philosophy 259 (3) - Philosophy of the Family. This course considers philosophical issues raised by family as a social institution and as a legal institution. Topics addressed include the social and personal purposes served by the institution of family, the nature of relationships between family members, the various forms that family can take, the scope of family privacy or autonomy, and how family obligations, mutual support, and interdependency affect individual members of families. (HU, GE4c) Bell. Winter 2009 and alternate years

Philosophy 295 (3) - Seminar on Philosophical Topics. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. A consideration of selected issues in philosophy. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. (HU, GE4c) Staff. Fall, Winter

Politics 180 (3) - FS: The Presidential Election of 2008 - topical description - This seminar revolves around the 2008 US presidential campaign. Students place the election in context by reading The Election That Changed America (Gould), Politics Lost (Klein), The Thirteen American Arguments: Enduring Debates That Define and Inspire Our Country (Fineman), and books by the major-party candidates. Students also analyze newspaper, journal, and magazine articles which evaluate the issues and events, and participate in out-of-class activities including watching candidate debates and election results and attending presentations by prominent guest speakers. Graded assignments include short papers on the candidates and issues and a long paper at the conclusion of the term evaluating the just-completed election process. (SS2) Strong

Politics (renumbered courses for 2009-10)
Politics 233 to 333 (3)   Environmental Policy and Law
Politics 330 to 234 (3) Congress
Politics 335 to 235 (3) Presidency
Politics 340 to 236 (3) Constitutional Law
Politics 342 to 237 (3) Judicial Process
Politics/Sociology 350 to 251 (3) Social Movements
Politics 355 to 255 (3) Gender and Politics
Politics 385 to 285 (3) British Politics in London

Politics 374 (Sociology 374) (3) - Introduction to Survey Research. Prerequisite: Sociology 102 or permission of the instructor. This course is designed as a group research project. Students select a topic, prepare a list of hypotheses, select indicators, construct a questionnaire, conduct interviews, analyze data, and write research reports. May be executed as a community-based research project. Jasiewicz. Winter 2012

Portuguese 101 (3) Beginning Portuguese II. Prerequisite: Portuguese 100. A second introductory level course designed to help prepare students in Portuguese Language proficiency for participation in the US/Brazil Consortium for Environmental Studies, a federally funded Washington and Lee University exchange program with the Universidade do Amazonas and the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Non exchange students are also welcome to take the course. Basic language skills are taught in preparation for a Portuguese Language immersion course taught in Brazil as part of the exchange program. The immersion course focuses on language skills required for environmental studies. Staff

Portuguese 113 (4) - Accelerated Elementary Portuguese. Prerequisite: Completion of 112 or equivalent in a Romance language. Preference is given to Romance Language majors. An accelerated course in elementary Portuguese emphasizing grammar and the skills of speaking, writing, reading, and listening comprehension and meeting five days per week. Staff. Fall

Portuguese 163 (4) - Accelerated Intermediate Portuguese. Prerequisite: Portuguese 113 or equivalent. This course develops intermediate communicative Portuguese vocabulary and active intermediate competence in the language. The traditional skills of foreign language instruction (structure, listening comprehension, reading, writing, and speaking) are stressed. This course meets five days per week. (FL, GE2) Staff. Winter

Portuguese 401 (1), 402 (2), 403 (3) Directed Individual Study.  Prerequisites: Four terms of Portuguese language or equivalent and permission of the department head. Taught in Portuguese. The nature and content of the course is determined by the students' needs and by an evaluation of previous work. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Poverty and Human Capability 453 (3), Shepherd Alliance Summer Internship - previously POV 450. Pass/fail only

Religion 222 (Law 355) (3) - Law and Religion - newly offered course
- Open to undergraduates and law students. Drawing on examples from diverse periods and legal cultures, this seminar addresses 'law' and 'religion' as two realms of life that have much shared history and continue to intersect in the modern world. Several important topics in comparative law and jurisprudence are covered, including authority and legitimacy, the relation between custom and statute, legal pluralism, church-state relations, and competing models of constitutional secularism. A selective survey of legal systems and practices rooted in particular religious traditions is followed by an examination of how secular legal systems conceptualize religion and balance the protection of religious freedom with their standards of equity and neutrality. (SS4, GE6D) Lubin

Religion 287 (3) - Central Asian Islam and The Religions of The Silk Road. Central Asia has long been a crossroads of peoples and ideas, connecting India, China, the Middle East, and the northern steppes of what is now Russia. This course explores this region's rich religious history and diversity in three parts: the religions of the ancient "Silk Road”" (including Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Manichaeism); Islam's arrival in Central Asia and how Islam was transformed in the process; and the response of Central Asia’s modern Muslim communities to the advent of colonialism, Communism, Economic Liberalism, and politically-mobilized Islam. (HU, GE4d) Hatcher. Fall 2008 and every third year

Religion 399 (3) - Senior Seminar. Prerequisite: Senior religion major. In this seminar, selected theoretical and methodological models are applied to the study of a particular theme or problem in the study of religion. The theme in a given year may be chosen for its points of intersection with the research interests of participating thesis writers. Students develop a prospectus for the thesis. Staff. Fall

Romance Languages (ROML) 295 (1-3) Topics in Romance Languages. Prerequisites: Appropriate language preparation and permission of the department head. Nature and content of the course is determined by the interests of the instructor(s) and student(s). May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Sociology 222 (3) - Secularization and Modern Society: The Demise of Religion? For some years, secularization theory, the view that political and economic "modernization" inevitably produces religion's demise, was nearly the consensus among social scientists. More recently, scholars have been forced to question this once common position. Religion seems to remain a powerful force in today's world. This course explores this central debate in the sociology of religion. (SS4, GE6D)

Sociology 374 (Politics 374) (3) - Introduction to Survey Research. Prerequisite: Sociology 102 or permission of the instructor. This course is designed as a group research project. Students select a topic, prepare a list of hypotheses, select indicators, construct a questionnaire, conduct interviews, analyze data, and write research reports. May be executed as a community-based research project. Jasiewicz. Winter 2012

Sociology 395 (3) - Senior Seminar in Sociological Analysis. Prerequisite: Sociology 375 (Politics 375) or permission of the instructor. This course is designed as a capstone experience for majors with the sociology emphasis. Students, utilizing their knowledge of sociological theory and research methods, design and execute independent research projects, typically involving secondary analysis of survey data. Working on a subject of their choice, students learn how to present research questions and arguments, formulate research hypotheses, test hypotheses through uni-, bi-, and multi-variate analyses (utilizing appropriate statistical packages such as SPSS), and write research reports. Jasiewicz. Winter 2012

Spanish 209 (3) - Intro to Hispanic Linguistics. Prerequisite: Spanish 162, 164 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. This course provides a broad view of major subfields of linguistic study with a particular focus on data drawn from the Spanish language. Class discussions begin with broader questions such as "What is language?" and "How do language and human behavior intersect?"; throughout the term students revisit those questions in light of topics presented in class. By the end of the course, students demonstrate an understanding of not only the many facets of the Spanish language but also the linguistic principles as can be applied to any language. The course covers major concepts in Spanish historical linguistics, Spanish phonology and phonetics, Spanish morphology and syntax, and lastly, Spanish dialectology. Gordon. Winter

Spanish 392 (3) B Spanish Language Theory and Practice. Prerequisite: Spanish 215. A topics course that approaches language study
through theories of language use and meaning, as well as their practical application through extensive writing exercises. Topics may include translation theory, analysis of theoretical approaches to language study, and advanced grammar. Staff

Spanish 401 (1), 402 (2), 403 (3) Directed Individual Study. Prerequisites: At least nine credits of 300 level Spanish and permission of the department head. Taught in Spanish. Nature and content of course is determined by students' needs and by instructors acquainted with their earlier preparation and performance. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Theater 209 (1) - University Theater II: Stage Management. Stage management is an essential position for all theatrical productions. Students develop management techniques through the study of the production problems of a major dramatic work or theatrical project being produced by the department. Students are required to participate in the production in a stage management capacity. Staff. Fall, Winter, Spring

Theater 211 (3) - Theater History II. A critical study of the performance conventions, dramatic literature and social contexts of world theater traditions, focusing on the periods from the Neoclassical era to contemporary times. Non-western theater forms are also considered. As a part of the course, students read and analyze representative plays and engage in individual and team research projects leading to reports and presentations. (HA, GE4a) Jew. Winter

Theater 242 (3) - Musical Theater. Students learn, through study of seminal texts and video clips of performances and interviews with performers, a basic history of the American musical theater as an art form combining the talents of composers, lyricists, directors, choreographers, set and costume designers, and others. Students research musical dramatic literature and apply musical and acting skills in the development and performance of excerpts from distinctive musicals of various eras. Students develop constructive, critical methods in the process of practicing and viewing musical theater performance. (HA, GE4a) Mish.

Theater 253 (3) - Digital Production. Digital technologies and multimedia interaction are increasingly utilized to produce, enhance, and innovate theatrical production. Students examine and experiment with various digital technologies as they relate to theater and dance performance. Students create digital audio, video, design rendering, and animation projects for theatrical performances. (HA, GE4a) Evans. Winter

Theater 309 (1) - University Theater III. Prerequisite: Junior standing and permission of the instructor. Participation in a university theater production for a minimum of 50 hours. A journal recording the production process is required. Staff. Fall, Winter, Spring

Theater 471 (1) - University Theater IV: Capstone.
Prerequisite: Senior standing and permission of the instructor. Participation in a university theater production for a minimum of 50 hours. A journal recording the production process and a portfolio documenting the student's productions at Washington and Lee University are required. Staff. Fall, Winter

Theater 493 (3-3) - Honors Thesis
. Prerequisites: Completion of the required courses for the major, a 3.500 grade-point average in courses used for the major, and permission of the department. Students must have completed advanced theater courses in their area of interest, demonstrated ability in the area of interest as evidenced by course work, performance and/or production experience, and completion of additional area-specific requirements. An advanced theater course that serves as a capstone to the major. Theater majors selected by the department conduct advanced theater research and individual artistic preparation, contribute artistically to the department’s performance season, and produce a significant written thesis under the guidance of a thesis adviser.
Staff. Fall-Winter

Spring 2010 new courses

Anthropology 180: FS: The Wired Self: Communication Technologies, Society, and You (4). Prerequisite: First-year standing. This first-year discussion- and project-based seminar is an in-depth investigation into how new communication technologies -- most specifically the mobile phone and the Internet -- affect society and personhood, in a cross-cultural perspective. Students enrich their understanding of the personal, social, and global impact of the communication technologies that they use every day and usually take for granted. Students present readings in class and produce original ethnographic research on local use of mobile phones and the Internet. (SS4) Goluboff. Spring 2010 and alternate years.

Art History 356: Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Paintings (4). Prerequisite: CHEM 156 in the preceding winter term. A survey of 17th-century Dutch history, art history, politics, religion, economics, etc., which links the scientific analysis of art to the art and culture of the time. The course begins on campus and then history, etc., will occur for a few days in Lexington and then proceed to Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. Students visit numerous museums, hear guest lectures from faculty at Universiteit Maastricht, and observe at conservation laboratories at some of the major Dutch art museums. Students are graded by their performance on two research projects involving presentations and journals. Though students are not required to learn a foreign language to participate in the program, they are expected to learn key phrases in Dutch as a matter of courtesy to citizens of the host country. (HA, GE4a) Uffelman. Winter 2010 and alternate years

Art Studio 223: Photography and the City (4) Prerequisite: ARTS 160. Several major cities, including Paris and New York, play an important role in the medium of photography. Students are introduced to the historical context of photography and photographers of a particular city, as well as contemporary artists and exhibitions. Field trips to museums, galleries, and relevant sites play an integral role in the course. The geometry of the city provides a sharp visual contrast to the bucolic landscape of rural Virginia. Each student undertakes a substantial photographic project based upon a particular visual element or conceptual idea of the city, shooting for their project every day of the first three weeks while in the one of these cities, with regular group critiques. The last week of the course is spent printing the project and curating an exhibition of the work. (HA, GE4a) Bowden. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Biology 104: Biological Illustration (4). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructors. This course covers the classic illustration techniques of pen and ink, carbon dust, watercolor, and colored pencil. It then moves into the digital corollaries of those techniques using professional-grade hardware and software. Regular field trips are included to practice scientific observation, field sketching, and photography. Ober and Hurd. Spring

Biology 200: Research Preparation in Biosciences (4) This seminar includes such topics as: critical reading of research papers; use of relevant primary literature in experimental design; integrative approaches to research questions; use of quantitative methods and modeling; data acquisition, record-keeping, and analysis; research ethics; introduction to specific lab techniques used in research; scientific writing and data presentation. In addition, students develop and present a plan for their research project to be discussed and critiqued by the whole class. I'Anson. Spring

Biology 280: Neural Imaging (4). Prerequisite: BIOL 113, 220 or permission of the instructor. This course examines how the architecture of specific types of neurons affect the neuron's ability to receive, process, and transmit synaptic information. In particular, we examine how some of the important dendritic differentiation cues can transmit arborization signals to the developing neurons. Topics also include neurogenesis, axonal pathfinding, and synaptogenesis. Students conduct original research in the laboratory and acquire skills with various imaging techniques and analytical tools. Watson. Spring

Biology 325: Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies (4). Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or permission of the instructor. This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Humston. Spring

Business Administration 105: Life Finance (4). Prerequisite: Junior or senior Standing. Not open to majors in accounting and business administration, business administration, economics, or public accounting. This course applies finance theory to topics in personal finance. Readings focus on personal-finance topics, financial-data sources, and other items in the financial press. Students begin the class focusing on their life's goals: family, career, service to others, lifestyle. After considering personal goals, we explore the tools needed to achieve those goals. A computer lab component enables students to build spreadsheet models useful in making decisions in areas such as financial mathematics, household financial planning, financial markets, investments, and retirement planning. The class is intended for students with an interest in money matters but without a background in finance or economics. Schwartz. Spring 2011 and alternate years

Business Administration  350: Negotiation and Dispute Resolution in a Business Environment (4). Prerequisite: BUS 205 or permission of the instructor. This course is designed to give students the abilities to negotiate successfully in a commercial environment and to create business solutions when a problem or dispute arises. Lectures, written materials, group projects, video, and role-play are utilized to explore the various theories of negotiation and types of dispute resolution, and to equip students with practical skills for forming and preserving business relationships and resolving business disputes as they occur. Culpepper. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Business Administration  358: Corporate Mergers, Leveraged Buyouts, and Divestitures (4). Prerequisite: Business Administration 221. This course focuses upon company valuation, mergers, leveraged buyouts and divestitures. The interactive course makes intensive use of the case method in developing an understanding of business valuation methodologies and corporate financing decisions. Advanced-level finance concepts, models, and techniques are applied by students in the development of situational problem formulation, analysis, evaluation, and decision-making skills necessary to solve the unstructured problems faced in the practice of financial and business management. Classroom participation and group presentations are emphasized. Kester. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Business Administration  390: Supervised Study Abroad (4). Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor, other prerequisites as specified by the instructor, and approval of the International Education Committee. These upper-level courses cover topics of current interest in business administration for which international travel provides a unique opportunity for enhancing understanding. Emphasis changes from year to year and is announced well in advance of registration. Staff. Offered in Spring when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit

Chemistry 106: Disorder and Chaos (4). An interdisciplinary introduction to the concepts underlying nonlinear dynamics and fractal geometry emphasizing the theories of chaos and complexity. Students study mathematical and computer modeling of physical and social systems and interpret the results of these models using graphical methods and written descriptions. Methods and concepts from calculus are demonstrated but no mathematics beyond high-school algebra is assumed. The laboratory component consists of a series of projects from diverse areas of the natural sciences, including pendulum motion, oscillating chemical reactions, and natural growth patterns. Laboratory course. (SL, GE5a) Desjardins, Pleva, Abry. Spring

Chemistry 155 (4): Science of Cooking. An introduction to the structure of molecules as well as their inter- and intramolecular interactions, with an emphasis on those species of importance to food and cooking. Chemical reactivity as it relates to cooking, food preservation, and spoilage is also discussed. Coursework includes cooking and food-based experiments. The first two weeks take place on campus, the final two weeks includes visits to a culinary school and food production facilities. This course may not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for Chemistry 295 when the topic was culinary chemistry. (SC, GE5c) France. Spring

Chemistry 175: Developing Outreach Activities for Local Schools (4). Prerequisite: CHEM 100, 106, or 111. This service-learning course teaches the development of hands-on laboratory activities to fulfill physical science goals required by the science standards of learning (SOL) for Virginia's public schools. Students create instructional science experiments for chosen age levels to explore and implement activities with school children in Lexington City and Rockbridge County School classrooms. Students visit at least two different classrooms. Primarily a laboratory course. LaRiviere. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Economics 232: Obstacles to Equal Opportunity for African-Americans (4) Prerequisite: ECON 101. The course analyzes policies and institutions in the U.S. that influence African-Americans in their development of human capital. Examples of topics explored include early child development, K-12 education, postsecondary education, wealth, job training programs, housing segregation, and access to quality health care. Diette. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Economics 304: Applied Econometrics Laboratory (4) Prerequisites: ECON 203 or INTR 202 and permission of the instructor. Much of the work done by consulting companies, banks, insurance companies, think tanks, government agencies, etc, is based on applied statistical and econometric analysis. This course helps prepare students for careers in these environments by providing further explorations of regression models, using a hands-on approach and emphasizing the use of data and student-directed research. Blunch. Spring 2010 and alternate years

English 205: Poetic Forms (4). Prerequisite: Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement. A course in the practice of writing poetry, with attention to a range of forms and poetic modes. Includes workshops, literary study, community outreach, and performance. (HA, GE4a) Staff. Spring 2010 and alternate years

English 234 (4) - Children's Literature. Prerequisite: Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement. A study of works written in English for children. The course treats major writers, thematic and generic groupings of texts, and children's literature in historical context. Readings may include poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction, and illustrated books, including picture books that dispense with text. Service learning placements in literacy-related work in the community supplement class work. (HL, GE3) Keen. Spring 2011 and alternate years

English 285: Reading Lolita in Lexington (4) A study of three novels, The Great Gatsby, Lolita, and Pride and Prejudice, through the lens of Azar Nafisi's memoir, Reading Lolita in Tehran. The course examines the basic tenets of Islam, the history of Iran and its Islamic revolution, and surveys experiences of Muslim women throughout the Middle East, using Geraldine Brooks' Nine Parts of Desire. Includes interviews with fellow W&L students and Muslims in the local community, to learn about the variety of experiences of Islam throughout the world, and the attitudes toward Islam among W&L students. (HL, GE3) Brodie. Spring 2011 and alternate years

English 373: Hitchcock (4). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. An intensive survey of the films of Alfred Hitchcock: this course covers all of his major and many of his less well-known films. It supplements that central work by introducing students to several approaches to film analysis that are particularly appropriate for studying Hitchcock. These include biographical, auteur, and genre-based interpretation, psychological analyses, and dominant form theory through the study of novel-to-film adaptations. (HL) Adams. Spring 2011 and alternate years

English 388: Exploring the West of Ireland. Prerequisites: ENGL 299 and two courses at the 300-level in English or permission of instructor. An immersion in the literature, history, politics, and culture of Ireland, specifically the traditional, rural west of Ireland. We spend four weeks in the southwest of Ireland, based in Tralee, County Kerry, and travel throughout the southwestern region of Ireland, focusing on the relations between the land and the literature. Site visits include a wide range of pre-historic, Celtic, early Christian, Norman, Medieval, Georgian and 19th, 20th, and 21st-century sites. Readings include medieval and modern Irish poetry, works of fairy-tale, folk-tale, and mythology, the Blasket storytellers, and the great modern writers W.B. Yeats, J.M. Synge, and Lady Gregory. Conner. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Engineering 250: Introduction to Engineering Design (4). Prerequisite: PHYS 112. This course introduces students to the principles of engineering design through first-hand experience with a design project that culminates in a design competition. In this project-based course, the students gain an understanding of computer-aided drafting, machining techniques, construction methods, design criteria, progress- and final-report writing, and group presentations. Students are engaged using various methods, including traditional lectures, seminars, apprenticing, group work, and peer critiquing in order to achieve the learning objectives for the class. Kuehner. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Geology 105: Earth Lab (4) Prerequisite: Three credits in geology and permission of the instructor. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students. Information about the course is made available prior to the end of the fall term. For Spring 2009, the course travels for three weeks across the American Southwest to explore some of the most spectacular geology in the US, focusing mainly on the geology and evolution of the Colorado Plateau in Utah, Colorado and Arizona. (SL, GE5a) Staff. Spring

Geology 230: Field Methods in the Appalachians (4). Prerequisite: Permission of the Instructor and Geology 100, 101 or 105. An introduction to the study of geology in the field with special attention to the methods used by geologists to make, record, and interpret field observations. The course includes study of and field trips in the central Appalachian region. Staff. Spring

Geology 373 (4) - Regional Geology. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and two geology courses numbered 200 or above. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. Information about the course is available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Staff. Spring 2010

German 264 (4) - Bonn and Beyond: A Supervised Study Through Germany's Rhineland. Prerequisite: German 111 and 112 completed with a grade of B (3.0) or better at W&L and the approval of the International Education Committee. This intensive language course offers students an extended period of direct exposure to the language, culture, and people of Germany. Students immerse themselves in the culturally rich environs of Bonn, Cologne, and Germany's Rhineland, improving their language skills through extensive and innovative language instruction. Students also gain greater understanding of German history and contemporary culture through lectures by native authorities, tours of museums and churches, and through their contact with their host families as well as native German university students. Kramer. Spring 2010 and every third year.

German 304 (4) - Bonn and Beyond: A Supervised Study Through Germany's Rhineland. Prerequisite: German 261 and 262 completed with a grade of B (3.0) or better and an average of B in all German courses taken; or permission of the department; and the approval of the International Education Committee. This intensive language course offers students an extended period of direct exposure to the language, culture, and people of Germany. Students immerse themselves in the culturally rich environs of Bonn, Cologne, and Germany's Rhineland, improving their language skills through extensive and innovative language instruction. Students also gain greater understanding of German history and contemporary culture through lectures by native authorities, tours of museums and churches, and through their contact with their host families as well as native German university students. Kramer. Spring 2010 and every third year.

History 205: Public and Private in Europe, 1700-1900 (4) This course investigates the construction of and relationship between public and private spheres in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries. This class investigates the relationship between civil society and democracy,how women's roles were redefined at the advent of modernity and the relationship between the public and the private spheres. (HU, GE4b) Horowitz. Spring 2010 and alternate years

History 274: Histories of Everything (4). Intensive reading and analysis of diverse works of world history and 'universal history'. Students develop understanding of historiographical traditions and develop their own framework for thinking about the human past. (HU, GE4b) Jennings. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Journalism and Mass Communication 218: Online Speech: Refuges, Harbors and Perils (4). Prerequisite: Journalism 101 or sophomore standing. An examination of how the marketplace of ideas created on the Worldwide Web impacts, impedes, and affects our communication and discernment abilities through looking at the laws that empower, encourage, and inhibit these abilities on the Web. The online experience includes clashes of interests, conflicts between content producers and content users, issues of privacy and defamation, and amplified roles and effects of anonymous speech in the society. Students examine how courts and lawmakers have dealt with these conflicts, the kinds of public policies engendered, and the effects on the First Amendment. Specific cases include controversies involving Google, YouTube, MySpace, Craigslist, etc. and legislative instruments such the DMCA and the CDA. This seminar focuses on online speech as it affects defamation, privacy, anonymity, pornography, social networking, and citizen journalism. While technical knowledge is not required to take the class, students must be willing to actively participate in class projects. Abah. Spring 2010 and alternate years.

Latin America and Caribbean Studies 175: Multiculturalism in Latin America: The Case of Brazil (4). This seminar studies Brazil as an example of a multicultural society. Students examine the meaning of multiculturalism and related concepts of identity, heterogeneity, and Eurocentrism, not only in regard to the Brazilian context, but also, comparatively, to that of US culture. The course focuses on the social dynamics that have engaged Brazilians of different backgrounds, marked by differences of gender, ethnicity, and class, and on how multiculturalism and the ensuing conflicts have continuously shaped and reshaped individual subjectivities and national identity. Some of the key issues to be addressed in class are: Brazil's ethnic formation; myths of national identity; class and racial relations; and women in Brazilian society. Readings for the class include novels, short stories, poetry, and testimonial/diary. (HL, GE3) Pinto-Bailey. Offered in Spring when student interest and departmental resources permit

Literature in Translation 235: Tragedies East and West (4). Prerequisite: Completion of FW or GE1 composition requirement. This course is designed to introduce students to the topic of tragedy in both China and the West from its origin in Greece and the Chinese Yuan dynasty up to modern times. It examines the concept of tragedy as a literary genre in the West, its evolution in history, and the aptness of its application to Chinese drama. Primary texts from Western and Chinese classical drama as well as from the modern period are selected as a basis for comparison, with a view to helping students form a comparative perspective in their appreciation of both Chinese and Western drama. Course activities include frequent discussions, writing assignments and projects of student performance, video screenings and a possible trip to either Washington DC or New York City to view a Chinese or Western play in performance. (HL, GE3) Fu. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Mathematics 171 (4) - Mathematics of Cryptography. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or 121. The history and application of cryptography. Topics include private-key codes, the ENIGMA machine and other WWII codes, public-key codes, and the RSA system. Appropriate mathematics is introduced, as necessary, to understand the construction and use of these codes. Several assignments are themselves in code, and students must decipher them just to find out what the homework is. (SC, GE5c) Dresden. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Mathematics 369: The Mathematics of Puzzles and Games (4). Prerequisite: MATH 322. The application of mathematics to puzzles and games. A brief survey on the designs of tournaments. The puzzles and games include but not be limited to the Rubik's Cube, poker, blackjack, and peg solitaire. Dymàček. Spring 2010 and alternate years.

Philosophy 280: Philosophies of Life (4). Prerequisite: One W&L course in philosophy, one course taught by a W&L philosophy faculty member, or permission of the instructor. This course provides opportunities to explore philosophies of life held by influential philosophers and by ordinary people, focusing on what it means to live a good or worthwhile life. It also gives students a chance to clarify and develop their own vision of what a good life is for them. Projects include conducting interviews with members of the community outside the classroom. (HU, GE4c). Bell. Spring 2010 and alternate years.

Philosophy 370: Roe v. Wade and the Abortion Question (4). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. This course considers the question of whether abortion should be legal in a modern state from the perspectives of contemporary moral philosophy and U.S. law. (HU, GE4c) Mahon. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Physical Education 325: Women's Health: Food, Fitness, and Fertility (4). This course focuses on women's health and alternative ways health can be achieved. Students gain knowledge and tools necessary to prepare them for a lifetime of health and wellness, including examinations of political, social, and medical pressures which may influence a woman's ability to "be well". Varied definitions of wellness are examined. Students establish fitness goals and develop and implement service-learning projects throughout the term to improve their personal fitness levels and to improve an organization that affects the community's health. Literature and research are examined on typical American eating habits; food, nutrition, supplements; and making healthy choices. Students' concerns and interest help determine an exploration of fertility and sexual health, including such issues as infertility, home birth, birth control, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual and nonsexual relationships. Local experts,

Politics 292: Comparative Political Analysis (4). This course provides students with an accelerated introduction to the conduct of comparative political analysis. Students develop complementary expertise under a unifying theme, working together with the faculty member and fellow students to write a collective product based on individual and group research. Students gain practice with the comparative method, hypothesis formation and testing, historical-institutional analysis, theory building, and scholarly critique. Students define case studies for comparative examination in conjunction with a team of peers, with each encouraged to study historical moments of their choosing, in consultation with faculty. (SS4, GE6b) Dickovick. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Religion 245: Self-Help and the Pursuit of Happiness (4). This course addresses the relation of the concept of self-help and self-improvement to religion both past and present and also considers philosophical, psychological, and medical-scientific perspectives on the pursuit of self-improvement and happiness. Students examine questions including the following: Might the concept and practices of self-help and self-improvement be part of the pursuit of an age-old dream of religion: to realize perfection, happiness, or the good life? Or might religion hold out the promise of something more or other than help for yourself? Might there be something better or more human than happiness, something that religion and other forms of culture might nurture? (SS4, GE6d) Kosky. Spring

Romance Languages 285: The Road to Santiago (4). Prerequisite: SPAN 162, 164, or FREN 162. The goal of this experiential learning class is to immerse students in the physical and intellectual environments experienced during eight centuries by pilgrims traveling from southwest France through northern Spain to Santiago de Compostela. During the first week of daily classes, students remain on campus and study the culture, literature, history, and architecture of the Santiago pilgrimage. During the remaining three weeks, students travel to Spain or France and Spain to experience the adventure as well as the art, architecture, and culture of the pilgrimage. (HU, GE4 to meet credit but not area requirements) Lambeth, Ruiz, West-Settle. Spring

Sociology 225: Peoples of Central Europe through Literature and Film (4). This course provides basic information about the citizens of the Central European nations of Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. The beliefs, attitudes, and value systems of the people of Central Europe are studied using core textbook readings supplemented by feature films, video materials, novels, short stories, plays, and poetry. Class discussions focus on interpreting these works of art in the context of comparative historical-sociological analysis of the Polish, Czech, and Hungarian cultures and societies. (SS4, GE4d) Jasiewicz. Spring

Sociology 289: Sociology of the Self, Self-Help, and the Pursuit of Happiness (4). Beginning with a survey of sociological theories of modernity and modern identities, the course moves to a consideration of empirical scholarly claims that modern identity is somehow problematic, and modern persons somehow especially 'world-open' and incomplete. In trying to understand the emergence of social movements oriented toward 'helping' and 'healing' the self, the following questions are considered: What sociological conditions underlie these movements? Do they have analogues in other times and places or are they tightly linked to the conditions of 'modern' societies? If, in the end, 'self help' aims to address problems that are sociological at root, can we expect its remedies to be useful? Are any non-individualized solutions to the problems lying behind a felt need for 'self help' possible? (HU, GE4d) Eastwood. Spring

Spanish 172: Supervised Study Abroad: Intermediate Spanish (4) Prerequisite: SPAN 111 and 112, or equivalent, and permission by the instructor. A period of intensive language training and exposure to the language, culture, and people of Costa Rica. This course develops intermediate communicative Spanish vocabulary and active intermediate competence in the language. The traditional skills of foreign language instruction (structure, listening comprehension, reading, writing and speaking) are carried out in a small class environment at the host language school and supervised by a W&L faculty member. The program also includes a home-stay with a Costa Rican family, excursions to local and national sites of interest, cultural activities, and a service learning component at the local elementary school, hospital, law and accounting firms, or other community agencies. Barnett. Spring

Theater 235 (4) - Design and Performance. Prerequisite: Four credits in theater or dance. This course is an in depth exploration of the crafted artifacts of the theater, specifically relate to the properties of puppets and masks. Through videos and demonstrations, students experiment with various puppet and mask construction techniques and performance methods. (HA, GE4a) Collins. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Course Revisions                                                                                                                      Back to Top

ACCT 211 to 311: Financial Statement Analysis (new number)

Art 270 to 226 (3)­ Introduction to the Book Arts. A creative exploration of the tradition of the handmade book. Students learn to make several styles of binding, including accordion books, pamphlets, and Japanese bindings. They develop some skill in letterpress printing, paper decorating, and simple printmaking techniques to create original handmade books. Some readings, discussions, and slide lectures introduce students to the ingenious history of books and printing. Besides constructing imaginative individual book art projects, students create one collaborative project. (HA, GE4a) Merrill  (FDR from HU to HA effective Spring, 2008 and updated description)

Art and Art History (beginning with 2009-10 catalog) - renumbered courses

ARTS 121 to 111, Drawing I
ARTS 122 to 112, Drawing II
ARTS 160 to 120, Photography I
ARTS 221 to 211, Figure Drawing I
ARTS 222 to 212, Figure Drawing II
ARTS 223 to 213, Drawing Italy
ARTS 260 to 220, Photography II
ARTS 265 to 224, Digital Color Photo
ARTS 270 to 226, Book Arts
ARTS 272 to 227, Printmaking I
ARTS 273 to 228, Printmaking II

ARTH 202 to 262, 19th-c. European Art
ARTH 203 to 263, Early 20th-c. European
ARTH 204 to 267, Art Since 1945
ARTH 205 to 253, Medieval Art in S. Europe
ARTH 206 to 254, Medieval Art in N. Europe
ARTH 207 to 266, American Art to 1945
ARTH 208 to 259, Art and Architecture of England
ARTH 250 to 255, Northern Renaissance
ARTH 251 to 256, Italian Renaissance
ARTH 252 to 258, Baroque and Rococo
ARTS 290 to 292, Special Topics in Photo
ARTH 301 to 361, American Architecture
ARTH 304 to 362, Vernacular Architecture
ARTH 308 to 364, Seminar on the Art of the 1960s
ARTH 310 to 366, African-American Art Seminar
ARTH 311 to 367, Women Artists Seminar

ARTH 349 to 353, Gothic Art in N. Europe
ARTH 351 to 354, Early Renaissance in Florence
ARTH 352 to 355, High Renaissance in Italy
 

- revise the course numbers and descriptions for ARTS 274, 275, and 295, respectively, as follow:

ARTS 274 to 327 (3) - Printmaking III.
Prerequisite ARTS 228 and permission of instructor. Students concentrate on producing a body of work through deeper exploration of one of the printmaking techniques. More emphasis on critical evaluation in the planning and execution stage. Seminar style discussion of contemporary issues in printmaking. Beavers. Fall

ARTS 275 to 328 (3) B Printmaking IV. 
Prerequisite ARTS 327 and permission of instructor. Tutorial/Critique course for advanced students in printmaking. Term project. Beavers. Winter

ARTS 295 to 329 (3) - Special Topics in Printmaking.
Prerequisite Studio Art 227 and permission of instructor. This course focuses on a problem or theme in printmaking, such as sequential or series of images, production of large-scale prints, simple alternative technique, digital processes, image with text, etc. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Beavers. Winter

ARTS 320 Painting V to Photography III
ARTS 321 Painting VI to Photography IV

Biology 220 and 221: Genetics and Genetics Laboratory -
does not meet GE5 requirement as stated on page 136 of the 2008-09 catalog.

BIOL 241: Field Ornithology (4) Prerequisite: BIOL 111 or permission of instructor. This course integrates studies of bird biology with field observation and identification of local bird species. Topics covered include anatomy, taxonomy, reproduction, vocalization, migration, ecology, and evolution. Field trips to a variety of areas throughout Virginia emphasize identification skills and basic field research techniques. No other course may be taken concurrently. Laboratory course. Cabe. Spring 2010 and alternate years

Biology 242, Field Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles
- from six credits to four credits beginning in Spring 2008

Business Administration 355: Cases in Corporate Finance (3). Prerequisite: Business Administration 221. Through use of the case method of learning, this course focuses on applied corporate finance strategy, including financial forecasting, financing sales growth, short-term versus long-term financing, commercial bank borrowing, leasing, and capital structure policy. Classroom participation is emphasized. Kester.

Chemistry 493 (3) - Honors Thesis. Prerequisite: Honors candidacy and permission. Laboratory work resulting in a thesis exhibiting a significant understanding of an important problem. A student interested in Honors in Chemistry or Biochemistry should notify the Chemistry Department Head by the end of the sophomore year. Staff. Fall-Winter

Classics 295 (3) - City of Athens: Archaeology, Culture, and Society. Approved the FDR - HU designation for this topical course, offered in Winter 2009.

All English 300-level courses: Prerequisite: Three-credits in 200-level English.

French 274 (3) - Cinéma français et francophone: 1980‑2000. Prerequisite: French 261 or equivalent or permission of instructor. An introduction to the study of film in French. Students familiarize themselves with the vocabulary and analytical tools necessary to analyze, discuss films and write about them. This course shows how film language has evolved since the New Wave of the 1960s through the critical study of selected films, representative of some of the major trends of the French and Francophone cinema production of the 1980‑2000 period. Viewings, presentations, discussions, and papers in French for development of communication skills. (HL, GE3) Frégnac‑Clave

renumber the following Geology courses (for 2009-10 catalog):
Geology 102 to 205 (3), History and Evolution of the Earth
Geology 201 to 155 (3), Oceanography
Geology 340 to 240 (4), Hydrology
Geology 350 to 250 (4), Structural Geology

Geology 350 (3) - Structural Geology and Tectonics. Prerequisites: Geology 160 and Mathematics 101. Description and methods of analysis of large- and small-scale structural features of the Earth's crust. Topics also include the analysis of geometry, strain and stress as they relate to deformation in the earth. Rock mechanics, application of structural geology in environmental engineering and resource exploration, geometric and computational techniques used in structural analysis, interpretation of geologic maps, and the structural development of mountain systems are also covered. Laboratory course. Connors. Fall

GEOL 373 (4) - Regional Geology. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and two geology courses numbered 200 or above. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. Information about the course is available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Staff. Spring 2010

History course number changes (2009-10 catalog)

History 301 to 201 (3) - Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 325-1198
History 302 to 202 (3) - Europe in the Late Middle Ages, 1198-1500
History 303 to 203 (3) - The Italian Renaissance in Its Historical Setting
History 304 to 204 (3) - The Age of Reformation
History 313 to 213 (3) - Germany, 1815-1914
History 314 to 214 (3) - Germany, 1914-2000
History 315 to 215 (3) - Venetian History
History 316 to 216 (3) - Rome and the Papacy Since the Schism
History 317 to 217 (3) - History of the British Isles to 1688
History 318 to 218 (3) - History of the British Isles Since 1688
History 320 to 220 (3) - Imperial Russia, 1682 to 1917
History 321 to 221 (3) - Soviet Russia, 1917 to 1991
History 323 to 223 (3) - International Relations, 1815-1918: Europe and the World
History 324 to 224 (3) - International Relations, 1919-1970: The End of European Hegemony
History 326 to 226 (3) - European Intellectual History, 1880 to 1960
History 329 to 229 (3) - Topics in European History
History 333 to 233 (3) - U.S.-Latin American Relations
History 334 to 234 (Sociology 234) (3) - Nationalism in Latin America
History 335 to 235 (3) - Canada Since 1837
History 338 to 238 (Anthropology 238) (3) - Anthropology of American History
History 340 to 240 (3) - Early American History to 1788
History 342 to 242 (3) - The United States, 1789-1840
History 345 to 245 (3) - The American Civil War
History 347 to 247 (3) - America in the Gilded Age, 1870-1900
History 348 to 248 (3) - Populism, Progressivism, and the New Deal
History 353 to 253 (3) - Gay and Lesbian Life in 20th-Century United States
History 357 to 257 (3) - History of Women in America, 1609-1870
History 358 to 258 (3) - History of Women in America, 1870 to the Present
History 359 to 259 (3) - The History of the African-American People to 1877
History 360 to 260 (3) - The History of the African-American People Since 1877
History 361 to 261 (3) - The History of Violence in America
History 362 to 262 (3) - The Old South to 1860
History 363 to 263 (3) - The South Since 1877
History 368 to 268 (3) - Building a Suburban Nation: Race, Class and Politics in Postwar America
History 369 to 269 (3) - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History
History 370 to 270 (3) - Australia and New Zealand
History 378 to 278 (3) - Indian Subcontinent: European Imperialism and Rise of Succession States, 1498-Present
History 380 to 280 (3) - Japan to 1800: From Shamans to Samurai
History 383 to 283 (3) - China's Imperial Shadow: Prehistoric Origins to 1600
History 389 to 289 (3) - Topics in Asian or African History
History 396 to 296 (3) - History of Washington and Lee

Italian 401 (1), 402 (2) Directed Individual Study.  Prerequisite: Permission of the department head. Advanced study in Italian. The nature and content of the course is determined by the students' needs and by an evaluation of their previous work. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Italian 403 (3) Directed Individual Study. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the department head. Advanced study in Italian. The nature and content of the course is determined by the students' needs and by an evaluation of their previous work. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. (GE3: only when the subject is literary.) Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

(for 2009-10 catalog) Journalism 101 (3) - Introduction to Mass Communications.
This course serves as a gateway for both majors and non-majors to examine the role that the mass media play in society. The course examines the pervasiveness of mass media in our lives, and the history and roles of different media and their societal functions, processes, and effects. Students learn to tell the difference between fact and opinion and examine the links among theory, research and professional experience, while analyzing the ethics, methods, and motivations of the media and the expectations of their audiences. We discuss how media cover diversity issues and evaluate the policies and freedoms that guide and shape the mass media and the news media in the United States. Students complete the course as better-informed consumers and interpreters of mass media and their messages. Abah. Fall, Winter.

PHIL 251 (3) - Existentialism
- New permanent course description - Overview of Existential thought in the 19th and 20th Century. The course presents core Existentialist thinkers and their critics, e.g. Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Sartre, de Beauvoir, Fanon, Heidegger and Camus, and explores important Existential themes such as human experience, anxiety, freedom, authenticity and absurdity. (HU, GE4C)

Philosophy 270 to 309 (3), History of Ethics.
Philosophy 310 to 269 (3), Contemporary Ethics

Politics (renumbered courses for 2009-10)

POL 233 to 333, Environmental Policy and Law
POL 330 to 234, Congress
POL 335 to 235, Presidency
POL 340 to 236, Constitutional Law
POL 342 to 237, Judicial Process t
POL/SOC 350 to 251, Social Movements
POL 355 to 255, Gender and Politics
POL 385 to 285, British Politics in London

Poverty and Human Capability 450 to POV 453 (3), Shepherd Alliance Summer Internship and to pass/fail only

Sociology 272 (3), Social Revolutions, cross-listed as Politics 272 (3), Social Revolutions. The course meets FDR SS4 and GE6d requirements.

Sociology/Politics 350, Social Movements to SOC/POL 251

Sociology 375 (3), Methods of Social Inquiry, delete the cross listings with Politics 375

Sociology 376 (3), Seminar in Survey Data Analysis, delete the cross listings with Politics 376

Spanish 201: Supervised Study Abroad: Costa Rica (4) Prerequisite SPAN 162, 164 or equivalent. Direct exposure to the language, people, and culture of Costa Rica. Designed to improve grammar and vocabulary of the advanced student through intensive training in Spanish with special emphasis on oral proficiency. The program also includes a home-stay with a Costa Rican family, excursions to local and national sites of interest, cultural activities, and a service-learning component at the local elementary school, hospital, law and accounting firms, or other community agencies. Barnett. Spring

Theater 109 (1) - University Theater I. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Participation in a university theater production for a minimum of 50 hours. A journal recording the production process is required. May be repeated for degree credit with permission. Maximum seven credits for students with a major or minor in theater, eight credits for others. Staff. Fall, Winter, Spring

Theater 151 to 251 (3), Theatrical Design (for 2009-10)
Theater 236
to 336 (3), Lighting Design (for 2009-10)
Theater 237
to 337 (3), Scene Design (for 2009-10)
Theater 238
to 338 (3), Costume Design (for 2009-10)

Course Deletions  Back to Top

Art History 280 (3) - The High Renaissance in Florence and Rome
Art History 340 (3) - The History of Chinese Painting
Art History 341 (3) - The History of Japanese Painting
Art History 456 (6) - Museum Internship I
Art History 466 (6) - Museum Internship II
Chemistry 252 (2) Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory
Chemistry 254 (2) Bioinorganic Chemistry
Interdepartmental 344(3) Ethics of Journalism (JOUR 344 is not deleted)
Studio Art 132 (3) - Design II
Studio Art 320 (3) - Painting V
Studio Art 321 (3) - Painting VI

Deletions for the 2009-10 catalog:
ACCT 100: Accounting for Non-Majors
ACCT 211: Financial Statement Analysis (new number 311)

BUS 356 (3), Commercial Bank Lending
CHIN 113 (3), Elementary Conversation
CHIN 263 (3), Chinese Language and Culture
ENGL 314 (3), Romance and Ballad
ENGL 316 (3), Renaissance Literature: The 16th Century
ENGL 366 (3), Contemporary American Short Story
FREN 215 (3), Atelier de composition
GEOL 108 (3), Origin and Evolution of Life
GEOL 135 (1), Meteorology
GEOL 146 (3), Geology of Natural Resources
GEOL 160 (3), Field Geology
GEOL 185 (1), Computer Applications in Geology
GEOL 376 (6), Regional Geology
GR 103 (3), Post-Classical Greek
HIST 158 (3), Seminar in 19th-and 20th-Century Africa for First-years and Sophomores
HIST 307 (3), French Revolution and Napoleon
HIST 308 (3), Europe, 1815-1871
HIST 309 (3), Europe, 1870-1918
HIST 310 (3), Europe, 1918-1940
HIST 311 (3), Europe Since 1939
HIST 325 (3), European Intellectual History from Renaissance to Kant
HIST 327 (3), The Development of the Western Legal Tradition
HIST 370 (3), Australia and New Zealand
HIST 374 (3), History of Southern Africa from the 17th Century
HIST 375 (3), European Imperialism in East and Central Africa
INTR 210 (3), Nonlinear Dynamics
ITAL 111 (4) and 112 (4), Elementary Italian I & II
ITAL 161 (3) and 162 (3), Intermediate Italian I & II
INTR 131 (3), Geography of Human Culture
INTR 132 (3), Contemporary Global Issues
JAPN 263 (3), Japanese Language and Culture
LATN 295 (3), Topics in Latin Literature
LIT 253 (3), Contemporary Spanish-American Prose Fiction in Translation
LIT 254 (3), Modern Continental Drama in Translation
LIT 258 (3), Masterpieces of French Literature in Translation
LIT 269 (3), Italian Literature of the Renaissance in Translation
LIT 274 (3), Contemporary Literature: Modern European Literature in Translation
PHIL 305 (3), Speech and Cognition
POL 230 (3), Public Administration
POL 260 (3), Comparative Public Policy
PORT 101 (3) Beginning Portuguese II
PSYC 305 (3), Speech and Cognition
PSPK 306 (3), Classical Rhetoric
PSPK 307 (3), Rhetorical Criticism
REL 275 (3), Contemporary Jewish Thought
REL 370 (3), Seminar in Judaism and Islam
POL 375 (3), delete the cross listings to sociology for Politics 375
POL 376 (3), delete the cross listings to sociology for Politics 376
SPAN 190 (3), Bibliographical Resources
THTR 232 (3), Fundamentals of Theater Art II


Revisions to Degree, Major and Program Requirements                                              Back to Top

                                                                  New minors grouped below
 

Art History (2009-10 catalog)

A major in art history leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 36 credits, as follows:
1. ARTH 101, 102, and 395
2. ARTH 103 or 140
3. One course in ARTS
4. ARTH 473 or 493 (3-3)
5. at least 18 credits in ARTH to include at least twelve credits chosen from 200-level courses and at least six credits from 300-level courses.

Studio Art (2009-10 catalog)

A major in studio art leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 36 credits, as follows:
1. ARTS 111, 309, 473; ARTH 267
2. Either ARTS 112 or 131
3. Nine additional credits, one course each from three of the following six areas:
    a. Design: ARTS 131
    b. Drawing: ARTS 112, 211
    c. Painting: ARTS 217
    d. Photography: ARTS 120
    e. Printmaking: ARTS 227
    f. Sculpture: ARTS 231
4. Nine additional credits, from one of the following five areas. A cross-media emphasis may be taken with permission of the studio art faculty.
    a. Drawing: ARTS 112, 211, 212, 213
    b. Painting: ARTS 217, 218, 291, 317, 318
    c. Photography: ARTS 120, 220, 224, 292, 320, 321
    d. Printmaking: ARTS 226, 227, 228, 327, 328, 329
    e. Sculpture: ARTS 231, 232, 331, 332
5. Three additional credits in ARTH"

Biology
(for 2008-09 catalog)

revise major in biology leading to BA:
"3...a. Molecules and Cells: Biology 215* or 215S*, 222*, 310*, ..."
revise biology major leading to BS:
"2...a. Molecules and Cells: Biology 215* or 215S*, 220, 222*, 295 (in a relevant topic), 310*,..."

(for 2009-10 catalog)
Approved revising both biology majors by adding
BIOL 325: Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies (4) to the respective Ecology and Evolution categories.

Chemistry

Approved the following revisions to major requirements (for 2008-09 catalog):

Chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science
"...3. Two courses chosen from Chemistry 311, 345, 347, 350, and 365."

Biochemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science
"...2. Two additional courses totaling at least four credits chosen from the following
...Chemistry 262, 311, 345 ..."

Approved the following revisions to major requirements (for the 2009-10 catalog):

 "The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 44 credits as follows:
1. Chemistry 111, 112, 242, 243, 250, ...
2. One course from each of the following two groups:
Chemistry 241 or 241S
Chemistry 260 or 261..." 

"The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science degree requires completion of at least 52 credits in the sciences and mathematics including the following:
1. Chemistry 111 and 112, 242, 243, 250...
2. One course from each of the following two groups:
Chemistry 241 or 241S
Chemistry 260 or 261...Mathematics 221 must be completed by the end of the sophomore year; Chemistry 262 must be completed by the end of the junior year. Mathematics 222 is recommended. ..." 

The major in biochemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science degree...
...2. Two additional courses totaling at least four credits chosen from the following. ... when the topic is appropriate and approved by the chemistry department head, Chemistry 295, 297, 298, 401, 402, 403,

Chemistry-Engineering (2009-10 catalog)

Approved deleting the 3-2 plan major in chemistry-engineering.

"Reminder: Majors leading to a Bachelor of Science degree from The College require at least 50 credits total in the natural sciences, mathematics, and computer science."

A major in chemistry-engineering leading to a Bachelor of Science degree requires completion of at least 47 credits, no more than three credits of which may be from 400-level courses, and including the following: ...
4. Eight additional credits chosen from courses numbered 200 or above in biology, chemistry, engineering,
and physics. No more than three of these credits may be numbered 400 or above. ..."

Computer Science (2009-10 catalog)

Approved revising the requirements for a major in computer science leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree, as follows:

1.        Computer Science 111, 112, 209, 210, 211; Mathematics 121
2.         Either Computer Science 312 or 313
3.         Either Mathematics 102 or 122
4.         Two courses chosen from Computer Science 315 through Computer Science 341

East Asian Languages and Literatures (for 2009-10 catalog)

Approved revising the East Asian languages and literatures major as follows:
"1.        Language core: At least 14 credits in either Chinese or Japanese, including completion of either Chinese 302 or Japanese 302"
2.     Literature and culture core: add LIT 235

English (for 2009-10 catalog)

- revise the major requirements, effective in 2009-10. "A major in English requires 33 credits, not including English 101, 105, and 201. The credits must include:
1. English 299 (should be completed by the end of the sophomore year)
2. Three to six credits from English courses numbered between 203 and 294
3. 24-27 additional credits from courses numbered at the 300-level or above, with the optional inclusion of one course from a list of approved cognate courses from designated departments and programs
4. Completion of the capstone writing requirement with either English 413 (3) or 493 (3-3)
5. At least six credits must be chosen from each of the following areas. English 370 can be used in any area.
   a. Early British Literature - English 312, 313, 314, 316. 318, 319, 320, 326, 330, 333, 334, 335, 358, and when the topic is appropriate, 380 and 403
   b. Later British Literature and World Literature in English - English 334, 335, 341, 342, 345, 348, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 358, 386, 387, and when the topic is appropriate, 380 and 403
   c. American Literature - English 354, 359, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, and when the topic is appropriate, 380 and 403

The English faculty urges majors to craft their courses of study to include lyric poetry, narrative, nonfiction prose, and drama.

Students may petition the chair to include one cognate course at any level in the English major; this elective credit cannot count in a distribution area. Courses that may be appropriate for such credit, such as some literature courses in languages other than English, must: a. focus on reading literature closely and recognizing and subtle and complex differences in language use; b. require at least 15 formal graded pages of writing about literature or a substantial portfolio of creative writing."

Environmental Studies (for 2009-10 catalog)

Approved revising the major in environmental studies as follows:
"...5.
Interdisciplinary Approaches: One course chosen from BIOL 230, ENV 250, 381, 390, and 395..."

Geology

Approved revising the geology majors as follows
-               the major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree:
                "3. Additional courses must be selected from among Biology 111 and 113; Geology 108, 209, 247, 260, 275, 340, 335, 360, 373…"
-               the major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree
                "2. At least 18 additional credits in geology, including at least 12 credits numbered 200 or above, and including at least one course chosen from Geology 247, 311, 330, 350, 360.
                3. Additional courses must be selected from among Biology 105 or higher; Chemistry 111 or higher; Computer Science 111 or higher; Economics 101 and 102; Interdepartmental 202; all engineering; all geology; all mathematics; Philosophy 108; Physics 111 or higher."

 -               the major in environmental geology leading to a Bachelor of Arts
               "4. Additional courses must be selected from among Biology 105, 111, 113, 230, 240, 245, 330; Chemistry 111; Economics 101, 102, 255; Geology 146, 275, 211, 330, 335, 350, 360; Philosophy 108; politics 230, 232."

for 2009-2010 catalog

Approved deleting the major in environmental geology.

A major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree is recommended for students pursuing graduate school or employment in geology and consists of at least 57 credits as follows:
1. one course chosen from GEOL 100, 101, or 105
2. CHEM 111, 112; PHYS 111, 112, 113, 114; MATH 101
3. one course chosen from CSCI 121, GEOL 260, INTR 202, or MATH 102 or higher
4. at least 24 credits in geology at the 200 or 300 level and at least 7 credits at the 300 level, distributed as follows. (Courses may be used to meet more than one requirement in this category.)
  a. field skills: one course chosen from GEOL 230, 231, 275
  b. solid earth: one course chosen from GEOL 211, 250, 275, 360
  c. hydrosphere/biosphere/atmosphere: one course chosen from GEOL 141, 205, 311
  d. surface processes: one course chosen from GEOL 240, 247, 330
  e. two lab courses chosen from GEOL 211, 240, 247, 250
  f. one lab course chosen from GEOL 311, 330
5. thesis: at least four credits from either GEOL 472(2-2) or GEOL 493(3-3)
6. additional credits chosen from Engineering; Geology; Mathematics; BIOL 111 or higher; CHEM 120 or higher; CSCI 112 or higher; PHYS 150 or higher

Students interested in environmental science, geophysics, or engineering geology should consult with a geology faculty member to ensure that the proper courses are selected for advanced study or the pursuit of a particular career path.

A major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree is recommended for students interested in careers outside of science including business, law, or policy and requires 36 credits as follows:
1. one course chosen from GEOL 100, 101, or 105
2. at least 21 credits in geology at the 200 or 300 level and at least 3 credits at the 300 level, distributed as follows. (Courses may be used to meet more than one requirement in this category.)
  a. field skills: one course chosen from GEOL 230, 231, 275
  b. solid earth: one course chosen from GEOL 211, 250, 275, 360
  c. hydrosphere/biosphere/atmosphere: one course chosen from GEOL 141, 205, 311
  d. surface processes: one course chosen from GEOL 240, 247, 330
  e. two lab courses chosen from GEOL 211, 240, 247, 250, 311, 330
3. additional courses chosen from Engineering; Geology; Mathematics; BIOL 105 or higher; CHEM 111 or higher; CSCI 111 or higher; INTR 202; PHYS 111 or higher

Revise the majors as follows:
A major in German language leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires at least 36 credits as follows:
1. German 262 (or at least three credits from German 263 or 264, an approved substitute in German language, or a cognate field)
2. German 311, 312, 332
3. At least six credits from German 301, 302, 303, 304, or from other approved German courses
4. ...

A major in German literature leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires at least 36 credits as follows:
1. At least six credits from German 262, 263, 264, 395, or from other approved German or cognate courses
2. At least six credits from German 301, 302, 303, 304, 311, 312, or from other approved German courses ...

History (changes for 2009-10 catalog)

A major in history leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 36 credits in history, including the following:
1. Introduction: At least six credits in 100-level history courses, preferably taken during the first or second year.
2. At least 24 credits in history courses numbered 200 and above, including the following:
a. Depth: At least 15 of these 24 credits will be in one of the following three areas of emphasis, including three credits from one of the 300-level seminars.
     European and Russian history
     American history (and, with the department head's approval, Latin American history)
     Global history, including Asian, African, and Latin American history (and, with the department head's approval, Russian history)
b. Breadth: At least nine of these 24 credits will be in history courses outside the area of emphasis, including three credits from one the 300-level seminars.
3. Electives: At least six additional credits in history.

 

Journalism and Mass Communications
Approved changes to the major

"3. Mass Communications
a. One course chosen from JOUR 231, 344, 345..."

Medieval and Renaissance Studies

Approved adding the following courses to the major in Medieval and Renaissance Studies requirements.

"3. 30 credits chosen from the following courses, ...

a. History and History of Science: History 170 ... and, when appropriate ... Interdepartmental 296, Romance Languages 295
b. Literature: English 240, 311 ... and, when appropriate ... Interdepartmental 296, Romance Languages 295
c. History of Ideas: ...Religion 282, 283, 287; and, when appropriate ... Interdepartmental 296, Romance Languages 295..."

for the 2009-10 catalog:

Approved revising the major requirements for Medieval and Renaissance studies add English 250, to reduce the
credits required to 33, and to remove the requirement for credits at the 300 or 400 level.

"A major in Medieval and Renaissance Studies leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 33 credits as follows: ...
3. 27 credits chosen from the following courses...
b. Literature: English 240, 250, 311, ..."

Philosophy (for 2009-10 catalog)

Approved revising the major in philosophy as follows:

1.   At least 30 credits from 10 three- or four- credit courses in philosophy, exclusive of Philosophy 473 and 493, and including:
    a.   Philosophy 106
    b.   At least 21 credits from 7 courses chosen from philosophy courses numbered 200 and above
    c.   Two courses in the history of philosophy or major figures chosen from among the following: Philosophy 141, 142, 168, 221 (Classics 221),   222, 263, 265, 311, 314, 316, and 195, 295, 395, and 403 when the topics are appropriate
    d.   Two courses in ethics and value theory chosen from among the following: Philosophy 101, 108, 207, 215, 216, 219, 256, 259, 269, 258, 280S, 309, 320, 341, 342, and 195, 295, 395, and 403 when the topics are appropriate
    e.   Two courses in metaphysics and epistemology chosen from among the following: Philosophy 102, 205, 206, 208, 212, 255, 257, 260, 301, 312, 313, and 195, 295, 395, and 403 when the topics are appropriate 
2.   Philosophy 473 (3) or 493 (3-3). The senior thesis is prepared and presented for evaluation in the fall term of the senior year; the honors thesis is prepared in the fall and winter terms, and is presented for evaluation in the winter term of the senior year.

Public Accounting (for 2009-10 catalog)

Revised the major in Public Accounting by dropping the requirement for six credits of 300-level business electives

Physics-Engineering (2009-10 catalog)

Approved deleting the 3-2 plan major in physics-engineering.

Physics and Physics-Engineering (for 2009-10 catalog)

"Reminder: Majors leading to a Bachelor of Science degree from The College require at least 50 credits
total in the natural sciences, mathematics, and computer science."

A major in physics leading to a Bachelor of Science degree requires completion of at least 46 credits including the following: ...
4. Six additional credits chosen from courses numbered 200 or above in biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, geology, or physics, or from BIOL 111,113; CHEM 111, 112; CSCI 111, 112; GEOL 100, 101; MATH numbered 300 or above. ..."

"A major in physics-engineering leading to a Bachelor of Science degree requires completion of at least 47 credits, no more than three of which may be from 400-level courses, and including the following:
1. ENGN 203, 204, 207 (PHYS 207), 225(PHYS 225),240 (PHYS 240),301,311,351; MATH 332; and PHYS 111, 112, 113,114.
2. Three additional credits from 200-level courses in engineering.
3. Three additional credits from 300-level courses in engineering.
4. Six additional credits from courses numbered 200 or above in biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, geology, or physics, or from CHEM 111, 112; CSCI 121; Mathematics numbered 300 or above. ..."

Politics (2008-2009 catalog)

Approved the following revision of the politics major effective with the 2008-09 catalog.
"A major in politics leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 41 credits as follows:

1. Politics 100, 105, 111; Economics 101 and 102; Interdepartmental 201, 202
2. 15 additional credits in politics, including completion of one of the following four sequences and including at least one seminar course (indicated by *) which entails an independent research and writing component:
   a. General Study: completion of five courses chosen from at least two of the three subfields below, including a seminar course.
   b. American Government: completion of four courses chosen from Politics 229, 230, 232, 233, 250, 330, 335, 340*, 342, 350 (Sociology 350), 360*, 370*, 397*, 466    and at least one course chosen from the remaining 200- and 300-level courses in international/global politics or political philosophy.
   c. International/Global Politics: completion of four courses chosen from Politics 214, 215, 221, 227, 240, 245 (Sociology 245), 246 (Sociology 246), 247, 260, 279, 327, 355, 380*, 381, 385, 392, 395 and at least one course chosen from the remaining 200- and 300-level courses in American government or political philosophy.
   d. Political Philosophy: completion of four courses chosen from Politics 265, 266, 360*, 370*, 396* and at least one course chosen from the remaining 200- and 300-level courses in international/global politics or political philosophy.
3. Six additional credits which must include courses from two of the following disciplines: anthropology, economics, philosophy, psychology, or sociology."

Religion (for 2009-10 catalog)
Approved revising the requirements for a major in religion as follows:

A major in religion leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 30 credits from 10 courses including the following:
1. Introduction: One course introducing theory and method in the study of religion chosen from Religion 100 or 210
2. Religious Traditions: Two courses introducing trends in the thought, practice, and/or significance of a religious tradition. At least one course must be chosen from each of two of the following religious traditions
  a. Asian Religions: Religion 131, 132
  b. Christianity: Religion 102, 151, 152, 250
  c. Islam: Religion 105, 281, 282, 283
  d. Judaism: Religion 101, 106, 271,
  e. American Indian Religions: Religion 110, 285
3. Cluster: A group of at least three courses proposed by students in consultation with their departmental adviser before the end of the junior year, cohering in such a way as to define and inform students' particular interest in a tradition, a topic or a method of studying religion. The cluster must include at least two courses from the Religion Department and may include up to six credits from two courses in other related disciplines or interdisciplinaryprograms (e.g., anthropology, art history, classics, English, history, philosophy, political science, sociology). Examples of clusters might include the following:
  Traditions of Scripture: Religion 101, 102, 282, 335
  Religion and Law: Religion 282, 335, Politics 340
  Religion and Literature: Religion 153, 272, English 236
  Religion in Classical Antiquity: Religion 250, 350, Classics 201, 283
  Patterns in Medieval Religion: Religion 152, 215, History 305
  Theology and the Future of Modern Secularization: Religion 152, 203, Politics 396, Sociology 290
  Science and the Modern Soul: Religion 203, English 252, Psychology 257
Students are encouraged to search the catalog and each term's list of topical offerings for courses related to their study of religion. Examples of other courses that may count for the cluster include but are not exhausted by:
  Art 140, Asian Art
  Art 205, Medieval Art in Southern Europe
  Art 206, Medieval Art
  Classics 201, Classical Mythology
  Classics 283, Late Antiquity
  Classics 288, Study Abroad: Rome & Ancient Italy
  English 236, The Bible as English Literature
  English 252, Shakespeare
  English 330, Milton
  English 236, The Bible as English Literature
  History 304, The Age of the Reformation
  History 305, Religion, Church, Politics in Medieval and
  Renaissance Society
  Politics 396, The Theological Political Problem
  Psychology 257, Psychobiology
  Sociology 290, Secularization and Religion
4. Additional credits in religion or other related disciplines to add up to 10 courses. A limit of two non-Religion courses will count toward the major including those in #3 above.
5. A minimum of 15 credits must be at the 200 level or above.
6. Senior Work: Religion 399 and a maximum of three credits from a thesis, either Religion 473 (3) or 493 (3-3)

Romance Languages (change to 2009-10 catalog)

A major in Romance languages, with a French emphasis, leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree consists of at least 33 credits as follows:
1. French 261, 273, 331, 332, and 397
2. Two additional French courses at the 200 level, including one chosen from 280, 281, and 282
3. Two additional French courses numbered 333 or above
4. Spanish 162, 164 or 172 and one of the following three pairings:
Spanish 220 and 240
Spanish 211 and 240
Spanish 212 and 220

A major in Romance languages, with a Spanish emphasis, leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree consists of at least 33 credits as follows:
1. Spanish 215, 220, and 240
2. One additional 200-level course in Spanish
3. Five Spanish courses numbered 300 or above, as follows. The department strongly encourages majors to
include at least one course each from the following areas: Spanish-American, Medieval or Renaissance
Peninsular (320, 322 and, when appropriate, 397) and Modern Peninsular (324, 326, 328 and, when
appropriate, 397).
a. One course on literature of Spanish America chosen from Spanish 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 350, and 398
b. One course on literature of Spain chosen from Spanish 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, and 397
c. One additional course in literature chosen from Spanish 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, 340, 342, 344, 346, 348,
350, 397, and 398
d. Two additional Spanish courses numbered 300 or above
4. French 162 or 172, French 261, and one course chosen from French 273, 280, 281, and 282Sociology and Anthropology (change to 2009-10 catalog)

A major in sociology and anthropology leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 36 credits.
1.   Anthropology 101, Sociology 102, Sociology 375
2.   One course chosen from Interdepartmental 202, Mathematics 118, and Psychology 250
3.   Completion of one of the two following areas of emphasis 

Sociology (24 credits)
a.   Theory: Sociology 351
b.   Emphasis: Three additional courses numbered 180 or above in the department, two in sociology and one in anthropology.
c.   Electives: Three additional courses chosen from courses numbered 200 and above in anthropology, sociology, or, when approved by the department head, economics, history, philosophy, politics, psychology, religion, or other disciplines
d.   Capstone: Sociology 395

Anthropology (24 credits)
a.   Theory: Anthropology 354
b.   Emphasis: Three additional courses numbered 180 or above in the department, two in anthropology and one in sociology
c.   Electives: Three additional courses chosen courses numbered 200 and above in anthropology, sociology, or, when approved by the department head, economics, history, philosophy, politics, psychology, religion, or other disciplines
d. Capstone: Anthropology 395 

Spanish (change to 2009-10 catalog)

A major in Spanish leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires demonstrated proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and completion of at least 31 credits as follows:
1. Spanish 215, 220, and 240
2. Two additional 200-level courses in Spanish
3. Five Spanish courses numbered 300 or above, as follows.
a. One course on literature of Spanish America chosen from Spanish 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 350, and 398
b. One course on literature of Spain chosen from Spanish 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, and 397
c. One additional course in literature chosen from Spanish 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, 340, 342, 344, 346, 348,
350, 397, and 398
d. Two additional Spanish courses numbered 300 or above

The department strongly encourages majors to include at least one course each from the following areas: Spanish-American, Medieval or Renaissance Peninsular (320, 322 and, when appropriate, 397) and Modern Peninsular (324, 326, 328 and, when appropriate, 397).

The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one semester, and preferably one academic year, in a Spanish-speaking country.

Theater
Approved adding Honors in the major.

revise the major requirements for the 2009-10 catalog, as follows:

A major in theater leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 34 credits in theater as follows:

1. Theater 131, 141, 209, 210, 211, 251, 309, 361, 471
2. At least 12 credits chosen from among the following including at least six credits chosen from theater courses:
Theater 202, 215, 216, 220, 235, 239, 241, 242, 253, 290, 336, 337, 338, 397, 423, 453, 493
Dance 120, 220, 225, 230, 292, 390"

New Minors

African-American Studies (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in African-American studies requires completion of 21 credits. At least nine credits used for this interdisciplinary minor must be unique to this minor.
1. African-American Studies 130
2. History 259 or 260
3. 12 additional credits selected from the following. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the African-American Studies Committee approves.
African-American Studies 295
Art History 310
English 365
History 259, 260
Literature in Translation 295, when taught on an African or African-American topic
Music 221
Politics 250
Sociology 228
4. Senior capstone experience: A relevant individual study, senior thesis, or honors thesis approved by the program committee and taught by a member of the program faculty.

Art History (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in art history requires completion of 21 credits as follows. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in art history. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits used to meet the requirements of another major or minor.
1. Two Art History courses at the 100 level
2. Three Art History courses at the 200 level
3. Two Art History courses at the 300 level
Students completing the minor will have familiarity with a broad swath of art history through 100 and 200-level courses, as well as exposure to specific problems or periods presented to them in 300-level seminars. Though students are not required to participate in the senior seminar for majors nor to write a senior thesis, they may do so if they wish.

 

Studio Art (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in studio art requires completion of seven courses. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in studio art. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor.

1. Completion of one of the following two areas of emphasis:
a. ARTS 111 and three courses in studio art chosen from one of the following two categories:
    I. ARTS 213, 217, 218, 291, 317, 318
    II. ARTS 226, 227, 228, 327, 328, 329
b. ARTS 131 and three courses in studio art chosen from one of the following two categories:
    I. ARTS 120, 220, 224, 292, 320, 321
    II. ARTS 231, 232, 331, 332
2. One course chosen from ARTH 102, 263, or 267
3. Two additional courses in studio art"

Computer Science (2009-10 catalog)

A minor in computer science requires six courses of at least three credits each. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in computer science. No more than nine credits used in another major or minor may also be used for this discipline-based minor.

1. Computer Science 111 and 112
2. One additional course at the 100 level or higher
3. Two additional courses at the 200 level or higher
4. One additional course at the 300 level or higher

Creative Writing (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in creative writing requires six three- or four-credit courses, exclusive of English 101, 105, and 201. No more than nine credits used in another major or minor may also be used for this discipline-based minor. The courses must include:

1. Creative writing workshops: three courses chosen from English 203, 204, 205, 307, 308, and 309 and Theater 220, with at least one at the 300-level.
2. Literature: two literature courses in English, including one chosen from courses numbered between 230 and 294 and one chosen from English 299 or English courses numbers between 311 and 387.
3. One additional course chosen from the above or from English 403 or 453. Students majoring in a discipline without an emphasis in literature are strongly encouraged to choose an elective course from the Literature category (number 2 above). English majors wishing to complete a Creative Writing minor should elect a fourth workshop, a 403 in creative writing, or a creative honors thesis in English.
4. Participation in a capstone public reading in winter or spring of the senior year.

East Asian Studies (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in East Asian studies requires completion of 22 credits, with an emphasis on either China or Japan, as follows. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine credits not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

China emphasis
1. HIST 103, EAS 391, 393
2. Twelve additional credits on China, including at least one 300-level course and including no more than three credits of Chinese language study, chosen from among the following:
     ARTH 240, 340, 390 (on a China-related topic)
     CHIN 100, 101, 111
     ECON 274
     HIST 156, 283, 289 (on a China-related topic), 384, 385, 386
     LIT 218, 295 (on a China-related topic)
     PHIL 168
     POL 227, 392 (on a China-related topic)
3. Three additional credits on General Asia or Japan, chosen from among the following:
     ARTH 140, 241, 242, 341, 390 (on a Japan-related topic)
     ECON 272
     HIST 278, 280, 289 (on an Asia-related topic), 381, 382
     JAPN 100, 101, 111
     LIT 221, 223, 225
     POL 327, 392 (on a Japan-related topic)
     REL 103, 131, 132, 231, 235, 335, 340

Japan Emphasis
1. HIST 104, EAS 391, 393
2. Twelve additional credits on Japan, including at least one 300-level course and including no more than three credits of Japanese language study, chosen from among the following:
     ARTH 241, 341, 390 (on a Japan-related topic)
     ECON 272
     HIST 280, 289 (on a Japan-related topic), 381, 382
     JAPN 100, 101, 111
     LIT 221, 223, 225
     POL 327, 392 (on a Japan-related topic)
3. Three additional credits on General Asia or China, chosen from among the following:
     ARTH 140, 240, 242, 340, 390 (on a China-related topic)
     CHIN 100, 101, 111
     ECON 274
     HIST 156, 278, 283, 289 (on an Asia-related topic), 384, 385, 386
     LIT 218, 295 (on a China-related topic)
     PHIL 168
     POL 227, 392 (on a China-related topic)
     REL 103, 131, 132, 231, 235, 335, 340

Environmental Studies (changes for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in environmental studies requires completion of the following 25 or 26 credits. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in environmental studies. At least nine credits used for this interdisciplinary minor must be unique to this minor. 

1. Required courses: Environmental Studies 110, 397
2. Social Sciences: one course from each of the following two areas.
a. Economics 101; Politics 100
b. Economics 255; Environmental Studies 381; Politics 233
3. Natural and Physical Sciences: one course from each of the following two areas.
a. Biology 101; Geology 100 or 101
b. Biology 245, 246, 322; Geology 141, 150
4. Humanities: two courses chosen from English 380 (when appropriate), 294; Environmental Studies 395; Philosophy 108, 260; Religion 224 (Anthropology 224)."

German (changes for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in German requires at least seven courses beyond the intermediate level. A student may not complete both a major in German literature or German language and a minor in German. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits used to meet the requirements of another major or minor.
1. German 311 and 312
2. Five courses in German numbered at the 300 or 400 level One course in German literature in translation may be used to meet this requirement. Also one additional course in an approved cognate area may be used toward this requirement. Examples include but are not limited to ARTH 250; HIST 313,314; MUS 231, 232, 332; PHIL 265, 311, 314, 316.

German minors are encouraged, though not required, to have a term of study in a German-speaking country.

Latin American and Caribbean Studies

A minor in Latin American and Caribbean studies may complement either a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree, and requires completion of at least 21 credits of LACS and related courses. At least nine credits used for this interdisciplinary minor must be unique to this minor.

1. Introduction: Latin American and Caribbean Studies 101
2. Distribution: 15 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from each of the three areas. Latin American and Caribbean Studies 195, 421, 422, and 423 may count towards the total count of 15 credits. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the program director approves.
a. Literature: Literature in Translation 259; Spanish 240, 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 350, 398; and, when appropriate, English 262, 350, 351; French 344; and Literature in Translation 259 and 295
b. Art and Humanities: Art 271, 272, 375, 376; History 130, 131, 180, 333, 336, 337, 366; Spanish 201, 212 ; and, when appropriate, French 280 and Spanish 295
c. Social and Natural Sciences: Biology 216; Politics 247; Sociology 334; and, when appropriate, Business 305, Economics 255, 280, 381, 385, 386; Politics 215, 381; Sociology 272
3. Capstone experience (typically after completion of other program courses): Latin American and Caribbean Studies 396

Mathematics (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in mathematics requires completion of 18 credits as follows. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in mathematics. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits used to meet the requirements of another major or minor.
1. MATH 102, 221, 222
2. Either MATH 311 and 312 or MATH 321 and 322
3. One other course at the 300 level in mathematics

Museum Studies (for 2009-10 catalog)
Approved the minor in museum studies.

A minor in Museum Studies requires completion of six courses. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor.

1. One course chosen from ARTH 101, 102, and 140
2. One course chosen from 200-level Art History courses
3. ARTH 398
4. Two courses chosen from among the following: ARTH 348, 356, 453, CHEM 156
5. One additional course chosen from 300-level Art History courses

Music (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in music requires at least 23 credits. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in music. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor.
1. MUS 120, 161,162, 202
2. Two additional 3- or 4-credit courses in music taken at the 200 level or above
3. Three credits of ensemble coursework chosen from MUS 108-115

Philosophy (for 2009-10 catalog)

Approved adding a minor in philosophy, as follows.

A minor in philosophy requires completion of at least 18 credits from six courses in philosophy, exclusive of Philosophy 473 and 493. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in philosophy.

1. Philosophy 106
2. Six credits chosen from two courses from two of the following three groupings:
a. History of philosophy or a major figure: Philosophy 141, 142, 168, 221 (Classics 221), 222, 263, 265, 311, 314, 316, and 195, 295, 395, and 403 when the topics are appropriate
b. Ethics and value theory: Philosophy 101, 108, 207, 215, 216, 219, 256, 258, 259, 269, 280S, 309, 320, 341 (INTR 341), 342 (INTR 342), and 195, 295, 395, and 403 when the topics are appropriate
c. Metaphysics and epistemology: Philosophy 102, 205, 206, 208, 212 (Religion 212), 255, 257, 260, 301, 312, 313, and 195, 295, 395, and 403 when the topics are appropriate
3. Of the 18 credits required for the minor, at least 12 credits from 4 courses must be chosen from philosophy courses numbered 200 and above "

Poverty and Human Capability Studies (2009-10 catalog)

A minor in poverty and human capability studies requires completion of 19 credits as follows. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine credits not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.
1. POV 101, 453
2. At least 10 credits chosen from among the following: ECON 235, 236, 237, 238, 280; ENGL 260; HIST 354; JOUR 240; PHIL 215; POL 215; POV 102, 295 (Law 221); PSYC 235; SOC 202, 228, 264; approved independent-study courses of at least three credits each that focus on poverty and human capability; or other course offerings ('related courses' on the Shepherd Web site) that devote a segment to poverty and enable
students to write a paper that addresses poverty and human capability. These 'related courses' must be approved in advance by the director of the Shepherd Program and the course instructor.
3. A capstone study that culminates in a major research paper on a topic proposed by the student that focuses on poverty and human capability. This course will typically be POV 423. It may be an independent study, senior thesis, honors thesis, or WGS 396, when the research projects fit the criteria above and are co-advised by Shepherd Program faculty. These substitute courses must be approved in advance by the director of the Shepherd Program and by the participating instructors.

Russian language and culture (for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in Russian language and culture requires at least nine courses. A student may not complete both a major in Russian area studies and a minor in Russian language and culture. At least nine credits used for this interdisciplinary minor must be unique to this minor.

1. Language: Russian 100, 111, 261, 262, 301, 302 and either 315 or 316.
2. Culture Component: Two courses chosen from the following:
Anthropology 260
Art History 380, when the topic is appropriate
History 320, 321, 311, 322
Literature in Translation 215, 263
Russian 315, 316
Russian Area Studies 403, when the topic is appropriate
Sociology 245, 246

Theater

Approved the minor in theater (change for 2009-10 catalog)

A minor in theater requires at least 18 credits. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in theater. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits that are also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor.
1. THTR 109, 131, 141, 209
2. THTR 211 or 212
3. Two other courses of at least three credits, one at the 300 level, chosen from theater courses, excluding THTR 409 and THTR 493

Women's Studies changed to Women's and Gender Studies (for 2009-10 catalog)

Approved the addition of a minor in women's and gender studies.

A minor in women's and gender studies requires completion of 21 credits. At least nine credits used for this interdisciplinary minor must be unique to this minor.
1. Introduction: Women's and Gender Studies 120, completed by the end of the sophomore year
2. Distribution: 15 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from each of the two areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the Women's and Gender Studies Committee approves.
a. Social and Natural Sciences: Anthropology 275; Biology 255; Politics 350 (Sociology 350), 355; Psychology 215, 262, 269; Sociology 264, 280, 350 (Politics 350), and Women's and Gender Studies 296
b. Humanities and other disciplines: Art 311; English 261, 313, 320, 358, 359; History 357, 358, 385; Philosophy 215, 216 219, 259; Public Speaking 305; Religion 132, 215; Theater 250; and, when appropriate, English 380; French 331, 397; Latin 326; Spanish 397 and 398, and Women's and Gender Studies 295
3. Capstone experience (after the completion of all other requirements): Women's and Gender Studies 396 or another relevant individual study, senior thesis, or honors thesis in the student's major approved by the program committee.

 

Policy information:     New     Deletions   Revisions                                           Back to Top

New

CREDIT FOR PRIOR WORK BY FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS
"In order to receive Washington and Lee credit, all documentation (official transcripts, official score reports, required W&L forms, etc.) must be received by the University Registrar before the end of the first term in which the student is enrolled at W&L."

DEGREE CREDIT FOR OFF-CAMPUS STUDY
"In order to receive Washington and Lee credit, all documentation (official transcripts, official score reports, required W&L forms, etc.) must be received by the University Registrar before the end of the first term in which the student is enrolled at W&L. For students obtaining external credits from off-campus study, it is the responsibility of the student to see that the official transcript is sent to the University Registrar, Washington and Lee University. Approvals must be obtained and official transcript received by the University Registrar before the conclusion (last day of classes) of the first 12-week term completed by the student upon his/her return to W&L. Late submissions will be charged an initial fee of $100 and $50 per term beyond the deadline. Exceptions to this rule may be granted by appealing to the Faculty Executive Committee.

REINSTATEMENT AFTER SERVING ACTIVE DUTY

Students whose absence from the University results from being called to active duty for more than 30 days will be reinstated at the University with their same academic status if: 1) they provide notice of such service, and other documentation required by law, to either the Associate Dean of the College or the Associate Dean of the School of Law for Student Services, as appropriate; 2) within three years of their completion of service (or within two years after any period necessary to recover from an injury incurred or aggravated during such service) they notify the appropriate dean in writing of their intent to return; and 3) the cumulative length of all absences from the University for service in the armed forces of the United States does not exceed five years. (NB: American Bar Association rules require that the Juris Doctor must be completed within 84 months after the beginning of law study.)

Minors
Approved by the Faculty, September 29, 2008

Departments and academic programs may choose to create minors to be implemented beginning Fall, 2009. Students may declare no more than two minors during their undergraduate career at W&L and no student is required to complete a minor. No minor may be completed with less than a 2.000 grade-point average in the courses meeting the requirement, nor may a minor be added to a student's record after the degree is awarded. Students may declare a minor at any point after declaring a major and no later than January 15 of their senior year.

Specific minors will be posted as requirements are approved by the faculty.

Undergraduates taking a course at the School of Law (approved by the faculty, January 7, 2008):
Seniors may approach the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at the School of Law for permission to take one course in both the fall and winter terms (law fall and spring semesters). Only certain courses will be available, and approval must be granted by the instructor, the undergraduate faculty adviser, and law and undergraduate deans. Attendance in the class is required on the same schedule as law students, so seniors must be aware of calendar differences (e.g., course start and end dates, different holiday and examination schedules) and work load. If approved, the course will count toward a term's required full-time course load, will be graded only on a Pass/Fail basis, and will not count as credits toward either a law or undergraduate degree. See the form available on the University Registrar's web site at registrar.wlu.edu/forms.

First-Year Seminars
Implementation of a pilot series of first-year seminars. The definition of "seminar" will for the moment remain a "big umbrella" with the primary determinations of size (limit 15), style (discussion vs. lecture), and activities designed to engage the student actively (readings vs. rote, projects vs. tests). In the initial effort, existing first-year-level courses will retain their course numbers in order to facilitate tracking for requirements and for repeats. New courses (either topics or tailoring upper-level courses for freshmen) will have a number assigned in the 180s. Individual approvals, including general-education or foundation and distribution designations are listed above in Course Additions.

Deletions

Revisions

Academic Life Curricular Changes for 2009-10
Approved by the Faculty: May and September, 2008

Implementation: All students enrolled in Fall 2009—first-years through seniors—will be subject to new requirements (only one course allowed in each spring term; 113 credits for graduation).

Degree credits: At least 113 credits are required for a W&L degree for all students graduating after June 2009.

Credits to be earned at W&L: Beginning in Fall 2009 for all students, no more than 56 of the 113 credits required for the W&L degree may be earned elsewhere or by any other means than through courses offered at W&L or through formal exchanges (e.g. VMI, Mary Baldwin, Spelman). In other words, first-year incoming credits, transfer credits, courses taken abroad, etc., will not count in the 57 credits to be taken at
W&L.

Spring-term course load: Beginning Spring 2010, all new, regular spring courses will be four (4) credits and students may enroll in only one four-credit course. The minimum course load for spring will be four credits. Students are allowed to enroll in no more than one additional credit (maximum five credits) or one scheduled non-credit curricular activity (such as INTR 201, Williams Investment Society, 100- or 200-level PE skills, etc.), with the provision that it not interfere with the schedule and obligations of the four-credit spring term course. Students enrolled in an academic course may engage in other activities not for credit— athletic practice, finishing a thesis or capstone, research projects, etc.—as long as they manage their time to make sure the regular academic course has priority and their full attention.

Exception for formerly approved six-credit spring term courses: Existing six-credit off-campus courses that now meet for six weeks will be exempt from the new four-week requirement and, if offered, allowed to remain six weeks long and valued at six credits. Seniors planning to graduate in May may not enroll in six-week spring term courses.

Limits on incoming credits: Beginning in Fall 2009 for the entering Class of 2013, first-year students may receive a maximum of 28 credits from any and all non-W&L sources (AP, IB, college courses while in high school, etc.). Of the 28, no more than nine credits can be counted toward the requirements for a particular major with departmental approval; individual departments may set a limit of less than nine credits counted toward the major.

Application for degrees
Applications for degrees must be filed with the University Registrar on or before May 15, if the degree is to be taken in December, and on or before September 15, if the degree is to be taken in May.

The following undergraduate academic calendar dates would be changed to: 
2009-10: Friday, May 14             December 2010 degree applications due
2010-11: Friday, May 13             December 2011 degree applications due

Incomplete Grade Policy

Approved revising the policies regarding Incomplete grades, as follows, effective with grades to be assigned at the end of the Spring 2008 term.

Definition of the Incomplete Grade (2007-08, page 80)

I (Incomplete) signifies that, due to some cause beyond the student's reasonable control (e.g. illness, injury, incapacitation), the work of the course has not been completed or the final examination has been deferred. The decision to grant an Incomplete should be made no sooner than the last three weeks of the term when it is clear the work of the course cannot be completed. When the deficiency is subsequently removed, the grade then attained is substituted for I in the permanent record. (See "Incomplete Grade" on page 82.).

Removal of an Incomplete (2007-08 catalog, page 82)

A. To receive credit for a course in which an I (Incomplete) grade has been received, students must remove the deficiency by the due date set by the instructor and no later than the end of the 15th class day (three weeks) into the next term, whether or not they are still enrolled at Washington and Lee. If unchanged by the instructor, the "I" grade becomes an F. For any extension, the student must obtain approval from the responsible faculty member on an Incomplete Extension form and submit the form to the Registrar's Office before the current deadline. All I grades remaining at the end of the subsequent term will automatically become F grades, whether or not the students are still enrolled.

B. Students may not register if they have four or more Incompletes on their record.

C. Students may not graduate with an Incomplete remaining on their record, unless there are extraordinary circumstances, satisfactory to the Committee on Courses and Degrees.

Language Study Abroad
Approved revising the following catalog language related to approving exceptions for imbedded language study abroad. (Language Study Abroad, page 103):

"6. Language Study Abroad: Students studying abroad in a non-English speaking host culture will be required to study the language of that culture at an appropriate level during the period of their enrollment there. Exceptions to this requirement may be granted by the Committee on International Education. This policy is not intended to cover W&L Spring Term Abroad programs."

Grade-Point Average, incorrectly printed as a change for 2008-09.  The actual change (italicized below) begins with the 2009-10 catalog.

"Beginning with Fall 2009, the following calculations will be implemented for grading all undergraduate courses. For this computation, there are assigned, respectively, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0 grade points for each credit of work on which the grades A, B, C, D, E, and F are recorded. For every unit of plus, with the exception of A-plus, .33 is added; for every unit of minus, .33 is subtracted from the grade points."

Degree Requirements (effective Fall 2009):
" To graduate, a student must achieve at least the following cumulative grade-point averages:
2.000 on all work attempted at Washington and Lee; ..."

Academic Probation (effective Fall 2009):
"At the end of any term, the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement places students on academic
probation for the following term for failing to meet one or both of the following:
1. if the term grade-point average for any term falls below 2.000;
2. if the cumulative grade-point average falls below 2.000.

Students placed on academic probation are warned of their precarious position and advised to limit their participation in
extracurricular activities during the period of their probation. Students whose probationary status is not removed by the
end of the next term fall under the Automatic Rule.

Automatic Rule (Academic Suspension) (effective Fall 2009):
At the end of any academic term, the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement suspends students who are on probation if they fail to meet either the term grade-point average or cumulative grade-point average standards described above. Suspension from the university severs all connections and privileges associated with being a student at Washington and Lee.
The following also fall under the Automatic Rule:
1. First-year students whose first-term grade-point average falls below 1.000; or
2. Those students who have been reinstated on probation and who have failed to meet the grade-point standard
required by the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement; or
3. Those students withdrawing from the university during any term for reasons other than medical and having a
cumulative grade-point average below 2.000; or
4. At the end of the winter term, those students unable to remove their probationary status by attempting no more
than four credits during the spring term."

LEAVE OF ABSENCE (effective Fall 2009):
   
Undergraduate students may request a leave of absence from the University for a specific reason and for a specified period of time by petition to the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement.
    Medical leaves of absence for undergraduate students may be requested through the Associate Dean of the College in consultation with the Dean of Students.
    Academic leaves of absence -- normally granted only for the purpose of academic enrichment -- may be requested using the application form available from the Office of the Dean of the College (or online at registrar.wlu.edu/forms/). Students must not be on academic probation at the time of application, and the application must be received no later than three weeks prior to the beginning of the term for
which leave is requested. ..."

Registration policy changes (for Fall, 2009)
There are four basic changes to registration
1) shorten the drop/add period for all three terms, with spring term drop/add to be the first two days of the term.
2) creation of drop with record (W grade after the 2nd week in fall and winter and after the 1st week in spring, and WP/WF grades after midterm)
3) increased fees for late registration changes, and
4) decrease the time allowed for automatic withdrawal - from midterm to 2 weeks in fall and winter and to 2 days in spring

Catalog Changes to Registration Policies
approved by the faculty, January 2009

1

Current policy

New policy

2

Registration (page 76)

 

3

A student is subject to a fee of at least $25 for failure to comply with the stated matriculation or check-in schedule    

Increase fee to $50

4

A student is subject to a fee of at least $25 for failure to comply with the stated registration schedule                

Increase fee to $50

5

Changes of classes and schedules without charge are limited to the drop/add period held during the first calendar week of the fall and winter terms and the first four days of the spring term.

… the first two days of the spring term with permission of all instructors and the adviser.

6

Students may alter their schedules after the drop/add period, before the end of the third week of a term, with permission of the instructor, the adviser, and a dean and payment of the fee ($25).

Fall and Winter terms: The regular drop-add period is limited to the first five days of the term.  During the second week of the term, students may alter their schedules, with the 1) permission of the instructor, the adviser, and an academic dean, and 2) payment of a $100 fee.  For spring term, drop-add must be completed by the end of the 2nd day of the term without fee with permission of all instructors and the adviser.  Through the rest of the first week of spring term, students may alter their schedules for 1-credit and PE courses only, with the 1) permission of all instructors, the adviser, and an academic dean, and 2) payment of a $100 fee.

7

Students who wish to make any change after the time designated for making changes must petition the Faculty Executive Committee for a waiver of the deadline and pay the appropriate fee. 

After the second week in fall and winter terms, and the first week in spring, any changes to the class schedule (except overload and medical reductions as noted below) must be approved by the Faculty Executive Committee, incurring a fee of $100, and in the case of dropped courses, assignment of  a grade of "W".  After midterm, all dropped courses will receive a grade of "WP" or "WF" as assigned by the instructor of record, regardless of reason for the drop.

8

Insert into initial paragraph on "Registration Changes"

Courses dropped after the drop/add period will be shown in the permanent record with a grade of "W", "WP", or "WF", depending on the date of the change.  Students should process changes on time to minimize withdrawal grades on the transcript.

9

Degree-seeking students who do not register for a full-time load by midterm, regardless of the reason, will be automatically withdrawn from W&L.

Degree-seeking students who do not register for a full-time load by the end of the regular drop-add period of any long term and within the first two days of the spring term, regardless of the reason, will be automatically withdrawn from W&L.

10

If they subsequently can demonstrate extenuating circumstances, they may apply for reinstatement and may petition the Faculty Executive Committee for permission to submit a late registration with a $100 fee.

Increase fee to $200

11

Any corrections to registration after the last day of final examinations for any term also incur a $100 fee.

Increase fee to $200

12

Upon recommendation of a student's academic adviser, discretionary adjustments for a first-year student may be permitted by the appropriate dean before the end of the third week of a term and without charge or record.

Upon recommendation of a student's academic adviser, discretionary adjustments during the fall for a first-year student may be permitted by the appropriate dean before the end of the second week of a term and without charge or record.

13

After the drop/add period, the late registration fee is increased to at least $50.  Three weeks into the term, the late drop/add fee also increases to $50.

After the drop/add period, the late registration fee is increased to at least $100.  Three weeks into the term, the late drop/add fee also increases to $100.

14

If students are enrolled in courses totaling 15 or more credits and if their success is endangered by the extra work, the overload may be reduced or eliminated upon the recommendation of the adviser and approval of the instructor and the appropriate dean without a recorded grade, proved the reduction is made by the end of the third week of the fall or winter term.

For fall or winter terms, if students are enrolled in courses totaling 15 or more credits and if their success is endangered by the extra work, the overload may be reduced or eliminated upon the recommendation of the adviser and approval of the instructor and the appropriate dean without a recorded grade, proved the reduction is made by the end of the second week.

15

The minimum academic load during the six-week spring term for each student is three credits; registering for fewer than three credits requires approval of the Faculty Executive Committee. The maximum academic load for each student, exclusive of physical education under the 300 level, is eight credits.  Permission to carry nine credits of academic work must be secured in advance from the appropriate dean.  Carrying ten or more credits requires permission of the Faculty Executive Committee.

The course load for spring term may not exceed five credits nor fall below four credits, and no overloads or underloads are permitted.

16

Withdrawal Grade (page 81)

 

17

A. No record of the grades shall be made if a student withdraws from the university within three weeks after classes begin in the fall and winter terms or within one week in the spring term.

No record of the grades shall be made if a student withdraws from the university within two weeks after classes begin in the fall and winter terms or within one week in the spring term.

18

 

W (Withdrew) grades are assigned for dropped course after the second week of classes through midterm during the long terms and during the second week of classes for spring term. WP (Withdrew Passing) and WF (Withdrew Failing) are assigned by the instructors concerned, regardless of the reason, after midterm.

19

B. Medical withdrawal before the last two weeks of class for any term will entitle students to receive grades of WP or WF (Withdrew Passing or Withdrew Failing), as assigned by the instructors concerned.

Medical withdrawal for any term will entitle students to receive grades of W, WP or WF (Withdrew, Withdrew Passing, or Withdrew Failing), as assigned by the instructors concerned, and depending on the date of the change.

20

D. Withdrawal for reasons other than medical will result in students receiving either WP or WF grades as assigned by the instructors concerned.

Withdrawal for reasons other than medical will result in students receiving W, WP, or WF grades (Withdrew, Withdrew Passing, or Withdrew Failing), as assigned by the instructors concerned, and depending on the date of the change.

21

F. The following notation will appear on all transcripts: "WP (Withdrew Passing) and WF (Withdrew Failing) indicate the student's work up to the time of withdrawal and are not term grades."

F. The following notation will appear on all transcripts: "W (Withdrew), WP (Withdrew Passing) and WF (Withdrew Failing) indicate the student's work up to the time of withdrawal and are not term grades."

 

22

Pass/Fail Grade (page 80)

 

23

After attaining sophomore standing a student is permitted to take each term one elective course (not a course used for the student's major or program or a course used to fulfill a general education requirement) in which the grade of Pass or Fail is given, to which no grade points are assigned.

After attaining sophomore standing a student is permitted to take each term one elective course in which the grade of Pass or Fail is given, to which no grade points are assigned.  Courses that are not permitted to be taken on a pass/fail basis include courses used for the student's major or minor, or a course used to fulfill a foundation or distribution requirement, or a regular, four-credit spring term course.

 

Miscellaneous information                                                                          Back to Top

CORRECTION - Academic Probation, page 87 - The last paragraph of this section should read:

"Students placed on academic probation are warned of their precarious position and advised to limit their participation in extracurricular activities during the period of their probation. Students whose probationary status is not removed by the end of the next term fall under the Automatic Rule."