WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY REGISTRATION
Changes to the 2007-2008 Catalog and Special Announcements for Spring Term 2008
(updated to )

For accurate and up-to-date information, please see "Recent Changes" and the course listing on the University Registrar's web page at http://registrar.wlu.edu/ .

by academic discipline:

Accounting French Philosophy
African-American Studies First-Year Seminars (FS) Physical Education 
Anthropology Geology Physics
Art  German Politics
Biology Greek  Portuguese
Business Administration History Poverty & Human Capability
Chemistry Interdepartmental  Psychology
Chinese Italian Public Speaking
Classics Japanese Religion
Computer Science Journalism & Mass Communication Russian
Dance Latin Russian Area Studies
East Asian studies Latin American and Caribbean Studies Sociology
East Asian Languages & Literatures Lit in Translation  Spanish
Economics Mathematics Theater
Education Medieval & Renaissance Studies University Scholars
Engineering Military Science/ROTC Women's Studies
English Music  
Environmental studies Neuroscience   

Accounting (ACCT)

African-American Studies (AFAM)

AFAM 295 (3) - Special Topics: African-American Memoir - topical description - This course examines the first-person imperative in African-American literature through the major first-person literary genre: the memoir or autobiography. Over the six-week spring term, we study six of the most important works of autobiographical memoir in the African-American tradition: Zora Neale Hurston's Dust Tracks on a Road, Richard Wright's Black Boy, Maya Angelou's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Albert Murray's South to a Very Old Place, Henry Louis Gates Jr.'s Colored People, and Trudier Harris's Summer Snow: Reflections from a Black Daughter of the South. We consider such issues as how these authors find and construct their literary voices; what obstacles they encounter in their literary efforts; the role of place, landscape, religion, and family in constructing their identities; their perspectives on race as a factor in identity; and much more. We also study the memoir as a literary form, using Judith Barrington Writing the Memoir. Students write their own memoir of at least 25 pages, which constitutes the major writing assignment of the course. (HL, GE3) Conner

Anthropology (ANTH)

ANTH 180 (3) - FS: Oral History - topical description - This first-year seminar invites students to explore oral history – the recording and investigation of the recent past through first-person recollection – and to learn how oral historical research contributes to anthropological understandings of economic decision making, social relations, and culture change. The seminar focuses oral-history investigation on the multifaceted 20th-century transformations recognized as the emergence of modernity. Moving from a time of horse power to nuclear energy and from family farms to participation in international "agribusiness," did individuals experience themselves as active agents or as being swept along a tide of socio-economic change? How did developments in agriculture articulate with changes in social relationships and cultural orientations? What has been gained and what has been lost with the establishment of modernity? Students explore these questions by reading about diverse international communities and by conducting oral history interviews with long-time farmers in Rockbridge and Augusta Counties. (SS4) A. Bell

Art (ART)

ART 121 (3) - FS: Black and White: The Foundations of Drawing (Drawing I) - What makes a really great drawing? And how do we begin to learn the art of drawing? In this seminar, we focus on two aspects of great drawings. The first is an understanding and development of the basic, foundational skills of drawing and observation. These skills are accessible to anyone willing to observe closely and to practice the techniques of drawing. Using line, volume, value, space and texture, we explore the representation of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface and also the expressive potential of the marks themselves. Drawing in the studio and outside in the landscape, students become adept at using graphite, charcoal, and ink. The second aspect of great drawings is more elusive but arguably more important. How do we understand the drawn image? Together we examine, analyze, and discuss the graphic works of a number of artists, contemporary and traditional, such as Vincent Van Gogh, Willem DeKooning, Andrew Wyeth, Larry Rivers, and Richard Diebenkorn. What is the artist trying to say? How does the content and process by which the drawing was produced convey the intent of the artist? By the end of the term, students have learned the language of drawing and have practiced the skills of both the eye and the hand. (HA) Beavers 

ART 270 (3)­ Introduction to the Book Arts - newly offered course - A creative exploration of the tradition of the handmade book. Students learn to make several styles of binding, including accordion books, pamphlets, and Japanese bindings. They develop some skill in letterpress printing, paper decorating, and simple printmaking techniques to create original handmade books. Some readings, discussions, and slide lectures introduce students to the ingenious history of books and printing. Besides constructing imaginative individual book art projects, students create one collaborative project. (HA, GE4a) Merrill

University Scholars 202 (3) and Art 380A (3) - Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Paintings - topical description - No prerequisites. Permission of the instructor required. The two courses are corequisites of each other. This six-credit, study-abroad experience develops students' fundamental understanding of certain physical, chemical, biological, and geological concepts and utilizes that vocabulary and knowledge to discuss 17th-century Dutch Art. The first half of the course involving the scientific and technical background takes place in Lexington; the second half, involving the art history, politics, religion, economics, etc., meets at the Center for European Studies (CES) Universiteit Maastricht and includes trips to museums, cathedrals, and other sites in Amsterdam, The Hague, Delft, Haarlem, and Rotterdam. The emphasis is on key aspects of optics, light, and chemical bonding needed to understand how a painting "works" and how art conservators analyze paintings in terms of conservation and authenticity using various scientific techniques (radiography, microscopy, spectroscopy, chromatography, etc.). When possible, the course develops modern notions of science with those of the 17th century in order to see how science influenced art. Students are graded, in the first half, on three or four tests; in the second half two research projects involving one paper and two Powerpoint presentations are the basis for grades. Though the working language at CES Maastricht is English, students learn key phrases in Dutch and practice the manners and customs of The Netherlands. (SC and HA; GE5c and GE4a) Uffelman (added October 2008)

Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 332 (6) - Plant Functional Ecology - topical description - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113. In the natural world, living organisms are in constant battle to survive. Unlike mobile organisms, which can easily move about to search for resources or hide from predators, plants must stand and endure what nature throws their way! In this field-based laboratory course, students explore the unique ways in which plants survive and thrive in their natural environment. Topics include biochemical defenses (some of which also serve as human medicinal chemicals), anatomical and physiological adaptations, and biodiversity responses. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments using a variety of species from intact plant communities. Alerding

Business Administration (BUS)

BUS 195A (3) - Art in Business - topical description - This course is an investigation of the multiple roles art and design play in the business world, covering all key areas of marketing communications. The emphasis is on the principles of sound marketing planning: research, setting marketing objectives, strategy and execution, as manifested in the creative output: the logo, the brand, the package, the retail space, and the advertisement. Requirements include a team project, some term papers and a final exam. Macdonald

BUS 195B (3) - FS: Puzzles and Critical Thought - topical description - This course examines a series of puzzles and real-world situations in an attempt to further develop students' abilities to critically analyze situations. The course is premised on dynamic immersion, a technique in which students learn through by experience rather than by recitation. Through the experience of solving the puzzles, students will learn how to better analyze the objectives of players, break down problems, develop sets of possible solutions, identify relevant information, and extend knowledge learned to similar situations. Although listed under the business designation, the course is decidedly non-disciplinary and all students should be adequately prepared. Hoover

BUS 303 (3) - SEM: CONSUMER INSIGHTS - topical description - The overall structure of the course is based on The Tipping Point (Malcolm Gladwell). Specifically the course is concerned with how marketers might be able to create their own phenomenon that might spread throughout a society or even just a target market. At the heart of the course is an emphasis on qualitative research methods that aid in understanding how consumers truly think and react (rather than how they respond to surveys), and then using that understanding to generate marketing insights and effective marketing strategy. This seminar-based course requires extensive in-course discussion, qualitative data collection for in-class project work, and a final project requiring application of all elements of the course. Bower

BUS 304 (3) - Business, Government, and Society - topical description - This course explores the relationship between the corporation and its environment. A firm operates within and interacts with the social, technological, political, legal, economic, and the natural environments. We explore and critically examine the role of the firm with respect to these surroundings from a historical and contemporary perspective. The intent of this course is to introduce students to the issues that have challenged and continue to challenge corporations as a result of their interaction with their surroundings. This course provides opportunities to improve verbal and written communication skills as well as the ability to perform critical analysis. Reiter

Chemistry (CHEM)

CHEM 298 (3) Special Topics: Medicinal Chemistry - topical description - Prerequisite: Chemistry 242. Topics covered in this course include: forces in biological systems, drug-macromolecular interactions, enzymes, receptors, and nucleic acids as targets for drug action, drug design and structure activity relationships, pharmacodynamics, biotransformation reactions, and drug design for pharmacokinetic problems. Several cases in rational drug design and discovery are also covered. Alty

CHEM 345 (3) - Advanced Biochemistry - newly offered course - Prerequisite: Chemistry 342, or Chemistry 341 and Biology 220. A more advanced treatment of current topics in biochemistry. Specific topics vary by year but may include enzyme/ribozyme kinetics and mechanisms, signaling pathways, biomolecular transport, chromatin structure/function, RNA processing pathways, and regulation of gene expression. LaRiviere

Chinese (CHIN)

CHIN 402B (2) - Further Studies of Elementary Chinese - topical description - This course offers a review for students who took Chinese 111 and 112 during the fall and winter term. The course meets four days a week and allow students to strengthen their first-year language skills. Fu

Classics (CLAS)

CLAS 224 (3) - The World of Late Antiquity - newly offered course - This course introduces students to the historical period between the close of the ancient world and the rise of the Middle Ages (c. 250 to 650 AD). Students read primary sources and explore the historical evidence in order to investigate the reigning historical model of “Decline and Fall” inherited from Edward Gibbon and others, and study the development of Christianity and Judaism during this period. Finally, the course investigates the formation of Europe and the rise of Islam. (HU, GE4b) Johnson

CLAS 288 (3) - Supervised Study Abroad: Rome and Ancient Italy. Corequisite: Religion 295. Benefiel, Brown

Computer Science (CSCI)

CSCI 180 (3) - FS: Robot and Mind - topical description - This course cannot be used toward requirements in the computer science majors. This freshman seminar combines the traditional reading/writing format with hands-on experience in building and programming physical and virtual (videogame) robots. Students learn about the deep philosophical issues raised by the possibility of machines that think, and build simple versions of such machines to explore these ideas, using the Lego Mindstorms NXT platform, the Quake II videogame, and other hardware and software robots. Readings and discussion from the classic and contemporary robotics and cognitive science literature are complemented by lectures from guest specialists in these areas. No prior experience in robotics, engineering or computer science is assumed, though students with such background have ample opportunity to challenge themselves with more advanced projects. Levy 

CSCI 297 3) - Special Topics: Web Applications - newly offered course, topical description - Prerequisite: Computer Science 209. A survey of technologies and techniques for designing and implementing high-performance, web-based software. Topics include client-server computing, usable graphical user interfaces, web-based information retrieval and processing, testing and debugging practices, and security issues and vulnerability prevention. Sprenkle

Dance (DANC)

DANC 390 (3) - Topics in Dance Composition: Latin Dance - topical description - Prerequisite: Dance 220 and permission of the instructor. This studio course focuses on the development of technical skills in a wide range of Latin dance styles including Flamenco, Salsa, Afro-Cuban, Conga, and Mambo. Strengthening of the body, improved flexibility, coordination and concentration as well as basic Latin dance terminology are explored. Assigned readings, class discussion, and the practice of Latin dance techniques are integrated through a historical narrative that reveals the changes, mutations and growth of Latin dance styles and their interrelatedness. The class culminates in a performance presentation. Meythaler

East Asian Languages and Literatures (EALL)

East Asian Studies (EAS)

Economics (ECON)

ECON 295A (3) - Economics of the Auto Industry - topical description - Prerequisite: Economics 101. For many of us, our lives revolve around automobiles. They affect where we live, how we get to work, where we shop. They are cultural icons, from the "pimping" of cars made famous long ago by Tom Wolfe, to chase scenes in movies, to means of socialization and symbols of status. The development, production, distribution, servicing, repair, and eventual disposal of cars is a huge industry. So is the construction and maintenance of the infrastructure over which vehicles travel. A constant component, however, is be the manufacturing and retailing of vehicles, and the economics thereof. Other topics covered vary depending on the availability of outside speakers and the whims of the professor. Smitka.

ECON 295B (3) - Health Economics - topical description - Prerequisite: Economics 101 Overview of the existing institutions and policies in the United States health care system. Application of standard microeconomic models to analyze how the current structure influences the allocation and distribution of health services. Investigation of potential health care reforms. Diette.

ECON 295C (3) - The Economics of Crime and Punishment - topical description - Prerequisite: Economics 101. This course explores topics of crime and criminal justice in the United States from an economic perspective. Using both theoretical and empirical methodologies, we examine the decisions of criminals (and would-be criminals), markets for criminal behavior and the goods and services produced within them, and public policies aimed at dealing with crime. Sample topics may include the following: Does crime pay? Does the government regulate crime too much or too little? Does prison "harden" criminals or rehabilitate them? Why does the U.S. imprison more people per-capita than any other country? An emphasis of the course is to explore myths and realities regarding the relationships between poverty and crime. Leibel.

ECON 296 (3) - Economics of the Middle East - topical description - Prerequisites: Economics 101, 102, and sophomore standing. This course is the study of several topics related to the economies of Middle Eastern countries. Topics include but are not limited to the economic history of the region, economic growth, the oil industry and OPEC (The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), Dutch disease, population, and globalization. With focus on selected countries, the tools of economic analysis are applied to provide insight into the problems of the region. Students write a research paper on a topic and a country of their choice related to the course theme. Ghandi.

ECON 395 (3) - Applications of Game Theory - topical description - Prerequisite: Economics 210. In this course, students learn the basics of game theory and its application to various fields, including industrial organization, public economics, environmental economics, and experimental economics. The course consists of lectures and classroom activities such as discussion and classroom experiments. Nishikawa.

ECON 396 (3) - Health Economics in Developing Countries - topical description - Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 203. A survey of the major issues of health economics, with a focus on developing countries. Health structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited health performance. Health goals and policy alternatives. Health and education. Health and the labor market. Selected case studies. A review of econometric methods for the evaluation of health programs is an integral part of the course. Blunch.

Education (EDUC)

Engineering (ENGN)

ENGN 395 (3) - Composite Materials - topical descriptions - Prerequisites: junior standing and permission of the instructor. A study of composite materials. The course examines a broad range of topics including composites manufacturing, mechanics, structure-property relationships, and ultimately advanced engineering applications. Kalista

English (ENGL)

ENGL 293A (3) - Topics in American Literature: Business in Literature - topical description - In his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith tells a powerful story of the free market as a way to organize our political and economic lives, a story that has governed much of the world ever since. This course studies that story, considers alternate stories of human economic organization, such as those of American Indian tribes, and sees how these stories have been acted out, mostly in American business and society. We study novels like Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby and Silko's Ceremony, poems by writers like Langston Hughes and Sherman Alexie, movies like The Godfather, Wall Street, and Erin Brockovich, and memoirs like Richard Wright's Black Boy. We also read essays from The New Yorker and The Economist and stories from the Wall Street Journal about American business issues, including leaders like Bill Gates and Donald Trump, problems like poverty, and incidents like Enron. The goal is not to attack American business but to understand its characteristic strengths and weaknesses so we can make the best choices about how to live and work happily in a free market society. (HL, GE3) Smout

ENGL 293B (3) - Topics in American Literature: The Short Story - topical description - We explore the roots of this distinctly modern genre through the work of American, French, and Russian masters while also sampling a wide range of contemporary writers, from minimalists to magical realists. Among the authors included: Poe, Hawthorne, Chekhov, Hemingway, Lawrence, Mansfield, Cheever, O'Connor, Carver, Oates, and Boyle. (HL, GE3) Oliver

ENGL 294 (3) - Topics in Environmental Literature - topical description - Corequisite: Biology 230. Students must register for both courses. This course focuses on three environmental writers from the 19th and 20th centuries. We read David Quammen's award-winning account of biogeography, The Song of the Dodo, both in its own right and as a guide to our other writers. We read Charles Darwin's The Voyage of the Beagle, his 1845 account of the five-year circumnavigation of the planet that took him to the Galapagos Islands and initiated his thinking about species and speciation. We read a selection of works by Alfred Russel Wallace, both his field work and his theoretical work. Finally, we read selections from the work of E. O. Wilson, who developed the modern field of biogeography (HL, GE3). Warren

ENGL 308 (3) - Advanced Creative Writing: Fiction - topical description - Prerequisites: Three credits in English and permission of the instructor. Students must submit writing samples to qualify for admission. English 203 and/or 204 recommended. A writing workshop designed to explore point of view in the creation of voice, conflict, and narrative in short fiction. Students read and discuss both stories by accomplished writers and stories written by members of the class. Written work includes both fiction and critiques. (HL, GE3) Smith

ENGL 380A (3) - Advanced Seminar: The Films of Alfred Hitchcock - topical description - A survey of most of the major films by Alfred Hitchcock, one of the greatest and most popular directors of the 20th century. The course pursues a fourfold approach: the relation of Hitchcock's biography to his films; Hitchcock's indebtedness to and influence upon 20th-century filmmaking (particularly German Expressionism and the Suspense-Thriller); Hitchcock's adaptations of several major 20th-century novels and narrative traditions (the spy novel, the gothic novel, the hardboiled detective story - by such writers as Conrad, Buchan, Du Maurier, Woolrich, Bloch, and Highsmith); and, finally, the centrality in his films of Freudian psychological paradigms - particularly ones that result in sexual/violent behavior. Films are shown on Monday and Wednesday evenings beginning at 7 p.m.; class and discussion occurs separately during the day; students must commit the time necessary to see all the films (around fourteen), and to do a good amount of reading (a biography, several novels, selections from Freud, and some film theory). (HL, GE3) Adams

ENGL 380B (3) - Advanced Seminar: African-American Women Writers - topical description - Starting with Jacobs's antebellum slave narrative and concluding with contemporary texts by African-American women, we take into consideration the various cultural, historical, and political factors that contributed to the exploitation and abuse of women under the institution of slavery. These texts address the issues of sexual violence, rape, maternity, resistance, and survival. As we consider fictional and non-fictional narratives about enslavement, we also read literary and cultural criticism to develop a complex understanding of the texts and of the issues they raise. As we focus on the causes and the consequences associated with the commodification of the black female body, we examine the individual and communal impact resulting from the enslavement of women. Our class discussion focuses on the following questions and topics: How do economics, empire, politics, and ideology work together to create racial hierarchies? What roles do the courts and the law play in constructing racial identities? What are we to make of the emphasis on the legibility of race; in other words, why is there so much attention paid to race as something that can be read on the body? How did slaves maintain family ties when the law deemed them property? What were the effects of the lack of legal protections on slave women's relationships to dominant models of womanhood? How did the desire to connect with an audience or readership influence the ways in which African American women wrote during the antebellum or Reconstruction eras? How does the historical institution of slavery play out in current society and in contemporary fiction about slavery? (HL, GE3) Hall

ENGL 380C (3) - Advanced Seminar: The Making of the Modern Self in Theory and Performance - topical description - Corequisite: Politics 396. This course examines the literary, political-social, philosophical and cultural constitutions of the modern self. What does it mean to be modern? We broach this question through plays in performance starting with arguably the first major playwright to give expression to the modern self, William Shakespeare, moving to contemporary formulations by the likes of Michael Frayn and Tom Stoppard, both of whom count Shakespeare as one of their primary influences. The vehicle of investigation takes its cues from a commonsensical observation about the nature of the self, namely, that it is malleable, fashionable we might say, part substance and part performance in a socio-political context. As Shakespeare would have it: "All the world's a stage / And all the men and women merely players." We supplement plays with historical studies that help us understand the cultural context within which works of art emerge. We introduce philosophical studies as a means of elucidating the larger epistemological, ontological and moral claims with which the chosen plays might be imbued. Most of our reading and discussion of the texts takes place in Lexington during the first three weeks of the Spring Term. We then move to London for two weeks, and conclude with a final week in Stratford. Examinations of performance prepare us to move from word to action. Our three weeks in England consist of visits to playhouses in London and Stratford, meeting directors, scholars, and actors. Our aim here is to consider how text and theory inform practice at the same time that we consider how performance shapes our reading of texts. Coming to terms with the meaning of the modern self is not the work of the mind alone. We are what we are by force of habit and custom - as Shakespeare's words suggest, by performance. How does the enactment of the modern self shape our understanding of the modern self? (HL, GE3) Pickett

Environmental Studies (ENV)

ENV 180 (3) - FS: The World is What We Eat - topical description - This seminar involves probing the aesthetics, ethics, and ecology of eating--the interconnections between how people think about eating, what people consume, how they produce their food, their health and well-being, and the workings and conditions of nature, including soils, waters, air, plants, and animals. It includes considerations of industrial and organic farming, globalization of food supplies, the slow-food and fast-food movements and "the new agrarianism," including techniques of food production, practices of rural living, and a wide constellation of cultural ideas, loyalties, sentiments, and hopes. J.L. Warren 

ENV 395 (3) - Ethics and Biodiversity Conservation - topical description - What is biological diversity, where did it come from, where is it going, and why should we care? In this course, we examine the interface between ethics and science with regard to the current mass extinction, the role that humans play in it, and the implications for environmental policy. Cooper and Hurd

ENV 401 (1) - The Science & Policy of Biofuels - topical description - This course centers around a Forum on the Science and Policy of Biofuels, a half-day forum during the last week of spring term. Students are given readings during the term and are expected to write a short position paper. W&L students, faculty, and outside experts participate in the Forum. Kahn

 French (FREN)

First-Year Seminars (various disciplines, title has FS:, limit is typically 12-15)

ANTH 180-01 (3) - FS: Oral History - topical description - This first-year seminar invites students to explore oral history – the recording and investigation of the recent past through first-person recollection – and to learn how oral historical research contributes to anthropological understandings of economic decision making, social relations, and culture change. The seminar focuses oral-history investigation on the multifaceted 20th-century transformations recognized as the emergence of modernity. Moving from a time of horse power to nuclear energy and from family farms to participation in international "agribusiness," did individuals experience themselves as active agents or as being swept along a tide of socio-economic change? How did developments in agriculture articulate with changes in social relationships and cultural orientations? What has been gained and what has been lost with the establishment of modernity? Students explore these questions by reading about diverse international communities and by conducting oral history interviews with long-time farmers in Rockbridge and Augusta Counties. (SS4) A. Bell

ART 121A (3) - FS: Black and White: The Foundations of Drawing (Drawing I) - What makes a really great drawing? And how do we begin to learn the art of drawing? In this seminar, we focus on two aspects of great drawings. The first is an understanding and development of the basic, foundational skills of drawing and observation. These skills are accessible to anyone willing to observe closely and to practice the techniques of drawing. Using line, volume, value, space and texture, we explore the representation of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface and also the expressive potential of the marks themselves. Drawing in the studio and outside in the landscape, students become adept at using graphite, charcoal, and ink. The second aspect of great drawings is more elusive but arguably more important. How do we understand the drawn image? Together we examine, analyze, and discuss the graphic works of a number of artists, contemporary and traditional, such as Vincent Van Gogh, Willem DeKooning, Andrew Wyeth, Larry Rivers, and Richard Diebenkorn. What is the artist trying to say? How does the content and process by which the drawing was produced convey the intent of the artist? By the end of the term, students have learned the language of drawing and have practiced the skills of both the eye and the hand. (HA) Beavers 

CSCI 180 (3) - FS: Robot and Mind - topical description - This course cannot be used toward requirements in the computer science majors. This freshman seminar combines the traditional reading/writing format with hands-on experience in building and programming physical and virtual (videogame) robots. Students learn about the deep philosophical issues raised by the possibility of machines that think, and build simple versions of such machines to explore these ideas, using the Lego Mindstorms NXT platform, the Quake II videogame, and other hardware and software robots. Readings and discussion from the classic and contemporary robotics and cognitive science literature are complemented by lectures from guest specialists in these areas. No prior experience in robotics, engineering or computer science is assumed, though students with such background have ample opportunity to challenge themselves with more advanced projects. Levy 

ENV 180 (3) - FS: The World is What We Eat - topical description - This seminar involves probing the aesthetics, ethics, and ecology of eating--the interconnections between how people think about eating, what people consume, how they produce their food, their health and well-being, and the workings and conditions of nature, including soils, waters, air, plants, and animals. It includes considerations of industrial and organic farming, globalization of food supplies, the slow-food and fast-food movements and "the new agrarianism," including techniques of food production, practices of rural living, and a wide constellation of cultural ideas, loyalties, sentiments, and hopes. J.L. Warren 

GEOL 100A (4) - FS: General Geology with Field Emphasis - Not open to those who have completed Geology 100 or 101. Washington and Lee is surrounded by some of the most interesting and classical geology of the entire Appalachian Mountain system. The campus lies right in the middle of the Great Valley of Virginia, within easy reach of the Blue Ridge Province and the Allegheny Mountains. This course takes advantage of our superb location, traveling to a new field site for each class meeting (including Goshen Pass, North Mountain, Devil's Marbleyard, Panther Falls, Island Ford Cave, and the Blue Ridge Mountains). We conduct a "hands-on" study of the basic principles of geology while unraveling the geologic history of the area. During the term, the class convenes for three four-hour class blocks each week to promote class discussions and to undertake laboratory and field-based investigations using maps, rocks and minerals, computational techniques, scientific writing, and poster presentations. This course is appropriate for those students curious about their natural world who enjoy spending time outdoors. Laboratory course credit. (SL) Knapp

HIST 180 (3) - FS: The Fin-de-sičcle in Paris, Berlin, and Vienna - topical description - Why did so many observers in the 1890s associate the "end of the century" with decadence, criminality, alcoholism, and sexual depravity? Why did this same decade give birth to so many of the social and cultural movements that have shaped the modern world? In this introductory level seminar, we analyze the impact of urbanization and technological progress on politics, literature, and the arts in three of Europe's greatest cultural centers. Topics include the artistic movements of naturalism and primitivism, the birth of modern feminism, the spread of Marxian socialism among workers, the critique of socialism and feminism by the Catholic Church, and Freud's campaign for the reform of "Victorian" sexual mores. Students write three short reaction papers on the assigned readings and a ten-page term paper on a topic of special interest to them. (HU) Patch

LIT 180 (3) - FS: Tragedies East and West - topical description - This course introduces students to the topic of tragedy in both China and the West from its origin in Greece and Chinese Yuan dynasty up to modern times. It examines the concept of tragedy as a literary genre in the West, its evolution in history, and the aptness in its application to Chinese drama. Primary texts from Western and Chinese classical drama as well as from the modern period are selected as a basis for comparison, with a view to helping students form a comparative perspective in their appreciation of both Chinese and Western drama. Western playwrights include Sophocles, Shakespeare, and Ibsen. Course participants engage in frequent discussions and writing assignments. (HL) Fu 

MUS 180 (3) - FS: The Human Voice: Science and Sound - topical description - This seminar is designed to explore the entirety of the human voice. Through readings, demonstrations, experimental methods, guest lectures, and class discussions, we explore the physiologic and acoustical properties of the voice. Our internal study reveals the anatomy, physiology, and physics that serve to operate this natural instrument. Our external study includes analyses of acoustics, resonance, and voice types through the recorded voice of famous classical and contemporary singers, live performances by guest artists in the Wilson Concert Hall, and private spectrograph analysis of each student's speaking or singing voice. Readings that feature conflicting viewpoints spur class discussions, individual research topics, and issues for group presentations. This exploration of the human voice is designed especially for those interested in public speaking, pre-medical studies, physics, or singing. This course is open to all freshmen; no class member is required to sing. (HA) Myers 

MUS 181 (3) - FS: First Nights: The Premieres of Six Famous Musical Works - topical description – Why did the audience almost riot at the premičre of The Rite of Spring (Paris, 1913)? Did the deaf Beethoven really conduct his Ninth Symphony (Vienna, 1824)? These and many other questions are addressed about the first performances of six important works in Western musical history. Students investigate how a musical composition reflects its times and the impact it has on culture. The ability to read music is not a requirement of the course. An interdisciplinary approach addresses connections of music with mythology, religion, art, architecture, theater, dance, poetry, philosophy, sociology, journalism, history, and politics. (HA) Gaylard, Spice 

PHIL 195A (3) - FS: The Concept of Honor - topical description - What is honor? It lies at the heart of Washington and Lee's values, yet its hold on the wider American society is tenuous, and its meaning may seem unclear to many, not least to students struggling to comprehend a revered honor system. This course seeks to explore the concept of personal honor in historical and philosophical context. We examine some key moments in this concept's development from ancient Greece to our own times, exploring a variety of philosophical perplexities along the way. We read literary texts such as the Iliad, Gawain and the Green Knight, and To Kill a Mockingbird, and view a variety of films, from The Good Shepherd and Troy to The Adventures of Robin Hood and Glory--each of which casts different lights on honor. In the last week of the course, we focus on Washington and Lee's own honor system, in order to clarify and deepen our own sense of local personal honor. Students learn from lectures by invited speakers and centrally participate in seminar discussion on the texts and films and the issues they raise. The course's central philosophical question is this: how can honor, born and reared in hierarchical, patriarchal, warrior societies, live or even thrive in a more egalitarian and peaceful home, such as Washington and Lee in the 21st century? (HU) Sessions 

POV 101A (3) - FS: Poverty: An Interdisciplinary Introduction - An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty but also considers poverty as a global problem. Students are expected to take frequent advantage of various optional assignments and optional revision of papers. Freshmen who prefer a class with more experienced students should take Poverty 101, where they receive the same attention in a slightly larger class setting. Students are expected to perform orally and in writing. (HU) Beckley

REL 180 (3) - FS: The Lives of the Prophet Muhammad - topical description - While Muslims regard Muhammad as a mortal human being, they also consider him special, chosen by the One God to be the mouthpiece of the ultimate revelation to humankind: the Qur'an. The events of the Prophet's life are essential to understanding the Qur'an, and imitating that life is the surest path to righteousness in the eyes of Muslims. But determining who has the authority to narrate Muhammad's life and how that life should be represented is as controversial a question today as it was for the first Muslim generation. This course explores the traditional oral and written sources for the Prophet's life from the early Muslim centuries; the use of Muhammad's life as a model for personal conduct, law, and piety; and the recent controversies of describing and depicting the Prophet in the contemporary world, such as the Danish cartoon protests and the Rushdie affair. (HU) Hatcher

Geology (GEOL)

GEOL 100A (4) - FS: General Geology with Field Emphasis - Not open to those who have completed Geology 100 or 101. Washington and Lee is surrounded by some of the most interesting and classical geology of the entire Appalachian Mountain system. The campus lies right in the middle of the Great Valley of Virginia, within easy reach of the Blue Ridge Province and the Allegheny Mountains. This course takes advantage of our superb location, traveling to a new field site for each class meeting (including Goshen Pass, North Mountain, Devil's Marbleyard, Panther Falls, Island Ford Cave, and the Blue Ridge Mountains). We conduct a "hands-on" study of the basic principles of geology while unraveling the geologic history of the area. During the term, the class convenes for three four-hour class blocks each week to promote class discussions and to undertake laboratory and field-based investigations using maps, rocks and minerals, computational techniques, scientific writing, and poster presentations. This course is appropriate for those students curious about their natural world who enjoy spending time outdoors. Laboratory course credit. (SL) Knapp

GEOL 197 (3) - Natural Hazards - topical description - An introduction to the geologic processes contributing to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mass movements, flooding, severe weather, meteorite impacts, and natural groundwater pollution. Using the geologic and historical record, we investigate the frequency and future potential of events and examine ways to mitigate and cope with natural hazards. Szramek

German (GERM)

Greek (GR)

History (HIST)

HIST 180 (3) - FS: The Fin-de-sičcle in Paris, Berlin, and Vienna - topical description - Why did so many observers in the 1890s associate the "end of the century" with decadence, criminality, alcoholism, and sexual depravity? Why did this same decade give birth to so many of the social and cultural movements that have shaped the modern world? In this introductory level seminar, we analyze the impact of urbanization and technological progress on politics, literature, and the arts in three of Europe's greatest cultural centers. Topics include the artistic movements of naturalism and primitivism, the birth of modern feminism, the spread of Marxian socialism among workers, the critique of socialism and feminism by the Catholic Church, and Freud's campaign for the reform of "Victorian" sexual mores. Students write three short reaction papers on the assigned readings and a ten-page term paper on a topic of special interest to them. (HU) Patch

HIST 195 (3) - Turkey, the Balkans, and The Arab World, 1800-2000 - topical description - The decline and collapse of the Ottoman Empire: the successor states of the 20th century including Egypt but excluding Israel and the rest of North Africa. (HU, GE4b) Porter

HIST 322 (3) - Seminar in Russian History: The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Union and the Resurgence of Russia, 1985 to Present - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. This seminar relies on a wide range of materials, including books, Internet resources, and documentary film to examine three distinct periods in Russia's recent past: the demise of the Soviet Union during the failed reforms of General Secretary Gorbachev; the political, social, and economic disintegration of Yeltsin's presidency; and a reassertion of central power and state control under President Putin. Students write a research paper on a topic on their choice with the instructor's approval. Bidlack

HIST 369A (3) - Spring Institute in Culture and Society: Slavery, Race Relations and Society in the Caribbean - topical description - Corequisite: INTR 296. This course examines slavery and its legacies in the Caribbean, with comparative analysis of South America and the United States. Students and faculty members are in residence in the Caribbean for four weeks, with approximately three weeks in Barbados and approximately one full week in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The goal of this course is to understand how slavery and race relations have affected -- and continue to affect -- diverse aspects of Caribbean society, including social relations, economies, politics, national identity, and access to natural resources. Students learn about these issues first hand in classes, on field trips, through individual research projects, and during interactions with local scholars and residents. (HU, GE4b.) Carey, DeLaney, Dickovick, Eastwood

HIST 369B (3) - The Coming of the Civil War - topical description - A short, intense, advanced seminar for 12 history fanciers. No advanced knowledge is expected; just an advanced curiosity about such puzzles as the causes of the Civil War, the nature of the Old South, the nature of the (sort-of) northern anti-slavery mentality, and the (maybe) inevitability of the war. Some lectures, more discussions, assigned reading in only primary sources (including Uncle Tom's Cabin, Calhoun, Lincoln-Douglas, and secession debates in Georgia and Virginia). Three very short essays are due, and a final exam is prepared (which will count less in the final grade than enthusiastic and informed class discussion of the readings) (HU, GE4b) Freehling

Interdepartmental (INTR)

INTR 296 (3) - Spring Institute in Culture and Society: Slavery, Race Relations and Society in the Caribbean - topical description - Corequisite: HIST 369A. This course examines slavery and its legacies in the Caribbean, with comparative analysis of South America and the United States. Students and faculty members are in residence in the Caribbean for four weeks, with approximately three weeks in Barbados and approximately one full week in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The goal of this course is to understand how slavery and race relations have affected -- and continue to affect -- diverse aspects of Caribbean society, including social relations, economies, politics, national identity, and access to natural resources. Students learn about these issues first hand in classes, on field trips, through individual research projects, and during interactions with local scholars and residents. (SS4, GE6d.) Carey, DeLaney, Dickovick, Eastwood

Italian (ITAL)

Japanese (JAPN)

Japanese 402B (2) - Further Studies of Elementary Japanese - topical description - This course offers a review for students who took Japanese 111 and 112 during the fall and winter term. The course meets four days a week and allow students to strengthen their first-year language skills. Robinson

Journalism (JOUR)

Journalism 295 (3) - Journalists At War - topical description - Open to non-majors. A critical, in-depth study of reporting and reporters during the United States' most recent wars, from the Viet Nam conflict to the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Students are exposed to numerous examples of journalists' work. de Maria

Latin (LATN)

Latin American and Caribbean Studies (LACS)

LACS 195 (3) - Special Topics in Latin American and Caribbean Studies: Hispanic Feminisms - newly offered course, topical description - A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme relevant to the overall understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean region, such as Hispanic Feminisms, the Indigenous Americas, or Shifting Borders, among others. As an introductory seminar, topics are selected with the purpose in mind to present the student with a broad, regional view within the scope of a restricted focus or medium. Spring 2008 Course Description: This seminar explores the development of feminist movements and theories in Spain, Latin America, and the United States. In order to understand the intersections between and among gender, race, and class in the "Hispanic" world, students examine key concepts such as theories of feminism, borders, heteronormativity, and mestizaje and apply them to select fiction, non-fiction, and filmic texts. (HU) Mayock.

Literature in Translation (LIT)

LIT 180 (3) - FS: Tragedies East and West - topical description - This course introduces students to the topic of tragedy in both China and the West from its origin in Greece and Chinese Yuan dynasty up to modern times. It examines the concept of tragedy as a literary genre in the West, its evolution in history, and the aptness in its application to Chinese drama. Primary texts from Western and Chinese classical drama as well as from the modern period are selected as a basis for comparison, with a view to helping students form a comparative perspective in their appreciation of both Chinese and Western drama. Western playwrights include Sophocles, Shakespeare, and Ibsen. Course participants engage in frequent discussions and writing assignments. (HL) Fu 

LIT 295A (3) - Switzerland's Postwar Literary Masters: Max Frisch and Friedrich Dürrenmatt - topical description - Novels, short stories, dramas and essays from Switzerland's two greatest postwar authors—works that were both a source of national pride and also often embarrassment for the Swiss Confederation. Frisch and Dürrenmatt were their nation's staunch supporters and tireless critics, a paradox formed from the attitudes toward the elusive concept of patriotism that these friends and literary rivals held. Distrust of ideology, loss of identity, the nature of justice and honor, culpability for the Holocaust and communal responsibility for society's ills are shared concerns and are topics for reflection and analysis in the course. (HL, GE3) Crockett

LIT 295B (3) - Japanese Animated Film - topical description - Since the 1990s, Japanese animation, or anime, has become both a significant domestic cultural phenomenon and one of Japan's most influential cultural exports. As the number of anime fans worldwide continues to grow in both number and enthusiasm, anime aesthetics have begun to have a significant impact on Western popular culture. This course examines the anime phenomenon with a focus on Japanese animated film, from the beginnings of the Japanese animation industry, to the emergence of anime fandom, to the present. Through frequent film screenings, students explore the major genres and examine the unique capacity of the medium for social criticism and exploration of serious themes that can exceed that of more mainstream and established media. (HL, GE3) Robinson

LIT 395 (3) - Film and Contemporary Chinese Culture - topical description - Prerequisite: Two 300-level or higher literature courses or permission of the instructor. This course examines Chinese postsocialist filmmaking from the late 1980s through the present time. We focus particularly on the documentary genre or films that employ a documentary mode. We explore contemporary socio-cultural issues in China as well as the film as a medium of representation. All films carry English subtitles unless otherwise indicated; all readings are in English. No knowledge of Chinese is required. (HL, GE3) Chang

Mathematics (MATH)

MATH 195 (3) - Close Encounters with the Impossible - topical description - Prerequisite: Math 101 or Math 121. The Russian mathematician A. N. Kolmogorov wrote that "At any given moment, there is only a fine layer between the 'trivial' and the impossible." This course begins with a brief history of mathematical ideas from the viewpoint that many of the greatest ideas in mathematics are the result of flirting with seemingly absurd notions. Topics include: Irrational, imaginary and transcendental numbers, perspective, curved space, the fourth dimension, infinitesimals, ideals, periodicity, the infinite, and the Banach-Tarski paradox. McRae

MATH 383 (3) - Six Weeks of Puzzles and Games - topical description - Prerequisite: Math 322. We examine the 15- puzzle, Rubik's Cube, the ins and outs of peg solitaire, bell ringing, and other interesting objects. Dymącek

MATH 401 (1) - Mathematical Analysis of Multiplayer Games - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the department head. Students propose and refine original designs for several multiplayer games incorporating elements of graph theory, combinatorics, and probability. One of the proposals will be selected for further development including testing, implementation, and a written mathematical analysis exploring, e.g., the existence of winning strategies, computational complexity of correct play, and relationships with existing combinatorial games. Siehler

Medieval and Renaissance Studies (MRST)

MRST 110 (3) - Medieval and Renaissance Culture: Trial, Torture, and the Truth - topical description - A study of the rise of heresy codification and Inquisition trial procedures in England and the Continent, c. 1300-1600. Topics include the rise of heresy trial in England; the Papal and Spanish Inquisitions; belief and conversion; artistic freedom; torture and execution; and the trial and testing of knowledge in Medieval and Renaissance literature. Course questions arising from the material include: How is it possible to know what someone believes? Can belief be authentic when coerced? Does the process of trial really lead to truth? What is intellectual and artistic freedom? In what ways do institutions today still try to control our beliefs? (HU, GE4a) Gertz

Military Science (MS)

Music (MUS)

MUS 180 (3) - FS: The Human Voice: Science and Sound - topical description - This seminar is designed to explore the entirety of the human voice. Through readings, demonstrations, experimental methods, guest lectures, and class discussions, we explore the physiologic and acoustical properties of the voice. Our internal study reveals the anatomy, physiology, and physics that serve to operate this natural instrument. Our external study includes analyses of acoustics, resonance, and voice types through the recorded voice of famous classical and contemporary singers, live performances by guest artists in the Wilson Concert Hall, and private spectrograph analysis of each student's speaking or singing voice. Readings that feature conflicting viewpoints spur class discussions, individual research topics, and issues for group presentations. This exploration of the human voice is designed especially for those interested in public speaking, pre-medical studies, physics, or singing. This course is open to all freshmen; no class member is required to sing. (HA) Myers 

MUS 181 (3) - FS: First Nights: The Premieres of Six Famous Musical Works - topical description – Why did the audience almost riot at the premičre of The Rite of Spring (Paris, 1913)? Did the deaf Beethoven really conduct his Ninth Symphony (Vienna, 1824)? These and many other questions are addressed about the first performances of six important works in Western musical history. Students investigate how a musical composition reflects its times and the impact it has on culture. The ability to read music is not a requirement of the course. An interdisciplinary approach addresses connections of music with mythology, religion, art, architecture, theater, dance, poetry, philosophy, sociology, journalism, history, and politics. (HA) Gaylard, Spice 

MUS 397 (3) - Modern Electronica: History, Analysis, and Composition - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. This seminar explores the history of electronic-music compositional techniques within the Western arts tradition, tracing their evolution into today's subgenres of electronica such as ambient, downtempo, house, drum-and-bass, and trance. Composers such as Stockhausen, Schaeffer, and Boulez serve as a foundation from which comparisons of the work of American minimalists and modern marriages with computer technology can be drawn. A key component is the analysis, de-construction, and re-construction of modern electronica styles. Students experiment with modern compositional techniques in select genres of electronica using computer software. This course is intended to provoke thought on the nature and role of music in culture. (HA, GE4a) Scarborough and CG Spice

Neuroscience (NEUR)

Philosophy (PHIL)

PHIL 195A (3) - FS: The Concept of Honor - topical description - What is honor? It lies at the heart of Washington and Lee's values, yet its hold on the wider American society is tenuous, and its meaning may seem unclear to many, not least to students struggling to comprehend a revered honor system. This course seeks to explore the concept of personal honor in historical and philosophical context. We examine some key moments in this concept's development from ancient Greece to our own times, exploring a variety of philosophical perplexities along the way. We read literary texts such as the Iliad, Gawain and the Green Knight, and To Kill a Mockingbird, and view a variety of films, from The Good Shepherd and Troy to The Adventures of Robin Hood and Glory--each of which casts different lights on honor. In the last week of the course, we focus on Washington and Lee's own honor system, in order to clarify and deepen our own sense of local personal honor. Students learn from lectures by invited speakers and centrally participate in seminar discussion on the texts and films and the issues they raise. The course's central philosophical question is this: how can honor, born and reared in hierarchical, patriarchal, warrior societies, live or even thrive in a more egalitarian and peaceful home, such as Washington and Lee in the 21st century? (HU) Sessions 

PHIL 195B (3) - The Concept of Honor - topical description -  What is honor? It lies at the heart of Washington and Lee's values, yet its hold on the wider American society is tenuous, and its meaning may seem unclear to many, not least to students struggling to comprehend a revered honor system. This course seeks to explore the concept of personal honor in historical and philosophical context. We examine some key moments in this concept's development from ancient Greece to our own times, exploring a variety of philosophical perplexities along the way. We read literary texts such as the Iliad, Gawain and the Green Knight, and To Kill a Mockingbird, and view a variety of films, from The Good Shepherd and Troy to The Adventures of Robin Hood and Glory--each of which casts different lights on honor. In the last week of the course, we focus on Washington and Lee's own honor system, in order to clarify and deepen our own sense of local personal honor. Students learn from lectures by invited speakers and centrally participate in seminar discussion on the texts and films and the issues they raise. The course's central philosophical question is this: how can honor, born and reared in hierarchical, patriarchal, warrior societies, live or even thrive in a more egalitarian and peaceful home, such as Washington and Lee in the 21st Century? (HU, GE4c) Sessions

PHIL 195C (3) - Philosophy and Sex - topical description -  Open to all classes. This course explores questions related to contemporary conceptions of sexuality and its proper role in our lives. Questions to be addressed include: What is the purpose of sex? Are sexual practices subject to normative evaluation on grounds of morality, aesthetics, and/or capacity to promote a flourishing human life? We consider the relation between sex and both intimacy and pleasure, viewed from the perspective of heterosexual women and men, and gay men and lesbians. What are our sexual practices and attitudes toward sex? What should they be like? Particular topics include: "hooking up," masturbation, marital fidelity, adultery and open marriage, the eroticization of violence, the sexualization of nudity and its impact on body-image, prostitution and pornography, perversion, sadomasochism, pedophilia, and rape. (HU, GE4c) Bell

Philosophy 207 (3) - Aesthetics - topical description - The first half of the course examines various theories about what art is and what makes works of art valuable. Special attention is paid to the differences and similarities between aesthetic judgments ("This painting provides a powerful depiction of man's inhumanity to man."), moral judgments ("Torture is wrong."), and judgments of fact ("Today's low temperature in Lexington was 45 degrees Fahrenheit."). The second half of the course examines the connections between art and politics and focuses upon drama as a distinctive art form. We view and discuss several major American plays, including Streetcar Named Desire, The Death of a Salesman, Long Day's Journey into Night, and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Classroom activity consists of lecture and discussion. Students are responsible for oral presentations and a paper. (HU, GE4c) Lambert

PHIL 395 (3) - Cyborgs: Technology and the Plasticity of Human Nature - topical description - Prerequisites: At least one course in philosophy; junior or senior standing; or permission of instructor. Human-technology symbionts - cybernetic organisms, "cyborgs" - are already among us. Is this a loss of our humanity? A transformation to a post-human era? Or the fulfillment of what makes us human? This class explores the idea that cognitive integration with technology and the environment - extended cognition, our cyborg nature - is what sets us apart from other terrestrial creatures. We investigate these through scholarly readings and popular films. (HU, GE4c) Gregory

Physical Education (PE)

Physical Education - IMPORTANT -- Read the instructions for PE registration at
registrar.wlu.edu/registration/regpe.htm


and the departmental information at
athletics.wlu.edu/physical_education/

Students may express a preference for up to three skills courses as part of web registration. These preferences will be examined after the academic schedule is set and, if open and not in conflict with the academic courses, one may be placed in the schedule. Changes or additional sections may still be handled during the drop/add period.

The following Physical Education courses have an additional charge, billed to the student's account after registration: PE 151 Golf; PE 170 Horsemanship; PE 177 Dance Conditioning; PE 195 Scuba; PE 304 First Aid/CPR.

Physics (PHYS)

Politics (POL)

POL 295A (3) - Biopolitics and Biopolicy - topical description - A survey of policy problems arising from advances in microbiology and genetics, particularly including human cloning, reproductive technologies, genetically modified organisms, forensic DNA, behavioral genetics, patenting genetic material, genetic medicine, and genetic counseling. This course is open to all students, particularly students in the life sciences. (SS2) Harris 

POL 295B (3) Developing Nations - topical description - This reading-intensive course introduces advanced students to questions of political leadership, as seen through the lens of 20th- and 21st-century leaders in developing nations. A number of interrelated questions are addressed: What is leadership, and how do we define leaders? Is it about charisma, the ability to persuade, or moral power, or none of these? Is leadership fundamentally a characteristic of individuals, or is it contingent upon and shaped by social conditions? Who or what drives social change; is it the agency of individuals, or do structures and institutions govern social change? Is leadership a solely positive characteristic, or is it ambiguous in its virtues? The course examines questions and controversies surrounding leaders including Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Hugo Chavez, and Rigoberta Menchu. (SS2) Dickovick 

POL 295C (3) - Culture and Society in Poland - topical description - Corequisite: Sociology 290B. This course, a study abroad program in Warsaw, addresses the contemporary cultural, social, and political issues of Poland. This nation is examined as a test case of rapid social, political, and economic change, which characterizes the recent historical developments in the entire East Central Europe. Lectures, discussions, film shows, and site visits are organized along three thematic tracks. Track 1, Historical sociology of Poland in the 20th century, focuses on factors that shaped the contemporary Polish national identity. Track 2 is devoted to a comparative analysis of the process of transition away from communism in East Central Europe. Track 3 covers selected contemporary social and cultural issues in Poland. In addition to lectures by the faculty of Collegium Civitas, the program of the course includes also an orientation session on W&L campus, daily discussion sessions with the instructor, visits to museums and historical sites, and side trips to Kraków, Gdansk, and Lódz. The course concludes with a wrap-up session on W&L campus, devoted mostly to the work on term papers. (SS2, GE6b) Jasiewicz

POL 295D (3) - The Pacific Basin in International Affairs - topical description - This course introduces, in historical context, the diplomatic, economic, and strategic dimensions of the Pacific Basin: East Asia/Southeast Asia/Pacific. Key current issues such as energy and terrorism are a focus. The foreign policies of major powers – China, Russia, Japan, United States - toward the region are explored and assessed. The foreign policies of other significant regional players - India, Indonesia, Australia – and economic groupings such as ASEAN are also explored and assessed. (SS2) Kiracofe

POL 295E (3) - The European Union - topical description - This course examines the origins, institutionalization, external relations, and future of European integration. Attention is given to the evolution of the European idea, EU institutions, the rationale and failure of an EU constitution, the forging of an EU foreign and defense policy, the EU's eastward enlargement, and the U.S. role and stake in a unified Europe. (SS2) Thompson

POL 295F (3) - Totalitarianism - topical description - This course is a study of totalitarian regimes. What makes a regime "totalitarian"? What kind of conditions need to be in place for a society to embrace a totalitarian regime? What keeps the totalitarian regime going once it is created? Are some societies more susceptible to totalitarianism than others, or is totalitarianism simply a side-effect of modernity? We focus on historical and contemporary manifestations of totalitarianism such as the Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Iron Curtain countries, North Korea, post-revolutionary Iran and Taliban's Afghanistan. We learn about these regimes through a variety of media such as novels, autobiographies, graphic novels, movies, and political theory texts. (SS2) Zarakol

POL 396 (3) - Advanced Seminar: The Making of the Modern Self in Theory and Performance - topical description - Corequisite: English 380C. This course examines the literary, political-social, philosophical and cultural constitutions of the modern self. What does it mean to be modern? We broach this question through plays in performance starting with arguably the first major playwright to give expression to the modern self, William Shakespeare, moving to contemporary formulations by the likes of Michael Frayn and Tom Stoppard, both of whom count Shakespeare as one of their primary influences. The vehicle of investigation takes its cues from a commonsensical observation about the nature of the self, namely, that it is malleable, fashionable we might say, part substance and part performance in a socio-political context. As Shakespeare would have it: "All the world's a stage / And all the men and women merely players." We supplement plays with historical studies that help us understand the cultural context within which works of art emerge. We introduce philosophical studies as a means of elucidating the larger epistemological, ontological and moral claims with which the chosen plays might be imbued. Most of our reading and discussion of the texts takes place in Lexington during the first three weeks of the Spring Term. We then move to London for two weeks, and conclude with a final week in Stratford. Examinations of performance prepare us to move from word to action. Our three weeks in England consist of visits to playhouses in London and Stratford, meeting directors, scholars, and actors. Our aim here is to consider how text and theory inform practice at the same time that we consider how performance shapes our reading of texts. Coming to terms with the meaning of the modern self is not the work of the mind alone. We are what we are by force of habit and custom - as Shakespeare's words suggest, by performance. How does the enactment of the modern self shape our understanding of the modern self? (SS) Velasquez

Portuguese (PORT)

PORT 101 (3) - Beginning Portuguese II - newly offered course - Prerequisite: Portuguese 100. A second introductory level course designed to help prepare students in Portuguese Language proficiency for participation in the US/Brazil Consortium for Environmental Studies, a federally funded Washington and Lee University exchange program with the Universidade do Amazonas and the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Non-exchange students are also welcome to take the course. Basic language skills are taught in preparation for a Portuguese Language immersion course taught in Brazil as part of the exchange program. The immersion course focuses on language skills required for environmental studies.

Poverty and Human Capability (POV)  Students from all classes are welcome to enroll in Poverty and Human Capability 101 in the spring. Freshmen may enroll in 101 or 101A, a First-Years only seminar limited to fifteen students. Poverty and Human Capability 101 is the principal gateway course for participating in Shepherd Alliance summer internships and the Shepherd Program course of study. This course meets the requirement for credits (but not for one of the two areas) under GE 4 and for HU in the FDRs. A list of courses from other departments that qualify for the Poverty and Human Capability Studies transcript recognition appear on the program Web site: http://shepherd.wlu.edu/ .

POV 101A (3) - FS: Poverty: An Interdisciplinary Introduction - An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty but also considers poverty as a global problem. Students are expected to take frequent advantage of various optional assignments and optional revision of papers. Freshmen who prefer a class with more experienced students should take Poverty 101, where they receive the same attention in a slightly larger class setting. Students are expected to perform orally and in writing. (HU) Beckley

 Psychology (PSYC)

PSYC 230(3) - Contemporary Issues in Child Development: Social Policy, Children and Families - topical description - Prerequisites: Psychology 113 and permission of the instructor. The course focuses on various ways that developmental psychology can inform social and public policy on matters such as parental leave, child-care issues, child and adolescent health policies, decisions for children facing foster care or adoption, juvenile justice policy, and issues related to education. Margand

PSYC 395 (3) - Development of Human Sexuality - topical description - Prerequisite: Psychology 113. This course examines the fundamentals of the development and practice of sexuality in the human being and the historical, psychological, and psychosocial aspects of human sexuality from childhood to old age. The course covers major theories of the development of sexuality in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian people. Students also explore how sexuality itself may be "constructed" as a result of culture, media, and gender. Fulcher

Public Speaking (PSPK)

Religion (REL)

REL 180 (3) - FS: The Lives of the Prophet Muhammad - topical description - While Muslims regard Muhammad as a mortal human being, they also consider him special, chosen by the One God to be the mouthpiece of the ultimate revelation to humankind: the Qur'an. The events of the Prophet's life are essential to understanding the Qur'an, and imitating that life is the surest path to righteousness in the eyes of Muslims. But determining who has the authority to narrate Muhammad's life and how that life should be represented is as controversial a question today as it was for the first Muslim generation. This course explores the traditional oral and written sources for the Prophet's life from the early Muslim centuries; the use of Muhammad's life as a model for personal conduct, law, and piety; and the recent controversies of describing and depicting the Prophet in the contemporary world, such as the Danish cartoon protests and the Rushdie affair. (HU) Hatcher

REL 295 (3) - Study Abroad: The Grandeur That Was Rome and the Rise of Christianity. Corequisite: Classics 288. (HU, GE4d.) Benefiel, Brown

Russian (RUSS)

Russian Area Studies (RAS)

Sociology (SOC)

SOC 290A (3) - Special Topics in Sociology: Culture and Poverty - topical description - This course approaches debates about the relationship between culture, development, and poverty from two main perspectives. First, we take a more microsociological approach, beginning with an analysis of Oscar Lewis's classic "culture of poverty" thesis, along with criticisms and further discussion from a variety of social scientists, including Pierre Bourdieu, Mitch Duneier, Ann Swidler, and William Julius Wilson. Second, we turn to more macrosociological debates about the relationship between culture and development more generally, beginning with Max Weber's Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, and engaging with more recent theorists of culture and economic development, including but not limited to Peter Berger, Arturo Escobar, Lawrence Harrison, and Hernando de Soto. Eastwood

SOC 290B (3) - Culture and Society in Poland - topical description - Corequisite: Politics 295C. This course, a study abroad program in Warsaw, addresses the contemporary cultural, social, and political issues of Poland. This nation is examined as a test case of rapid social, political, and economic change, which characterizes the recent historical developments in the entire East Central Europe. Lectures, discussions, film shows, and site visits are organized along three thematic tracks. Track 1, Historical sociology of Poland in the 20th century, focuses on factors that shaped the contemporary Polish national identity. Track 2 is devoted to a comparative analysis of the process of transition away from communism in East Central Europe. Track 3 covers selected contemporary social and cultural issues in Poland. In addition to lectures by the faculty of Collegium Civitas, the program of the course includes also an orientation session on W&L campus, daily discussion sessions with the instructor, visits to museums and historical sites, and side trips to Kraków, Gdansk, and Lódz. The course concludes with a wrap-up session on W&L campus, devoted mostly to the work on term papers. (SS4, GE6d) Jasiewicz

Spanish (SPAN)

SPAN 201 (6) - Supervised Study Abroad: Costa Rica - newly offered course - Direct exposure to the language, people, and culture of Costa Rica. The course is designed to improve grammar and vocabulary of the advanced student through intensive training in Spanish with special emphasis on oral proficiency. The program includes an on-campus portion (one week) which offers an overview of the culture of Costa Rica and as well as extensive pre-departure oral language training. The site portion includes five weeks of supervised academic work at the Instituto Guanacasteco in Nicoya, Costa Rica. Students receive intensive language training (approximately four hours a day with a maximum of four students per class.) The courses are total immersion, meaning home stay with a Costa Rican Spanish-speaking family, all materials are in Spanish, and only Spanish is spoken in the classroom. In addition to the language classes, a community-based service learning component allows students to test their language skills as a volunteer at the local hospital, primary school, law firm, court house, or local businesses, among others. The program also promotes cultural awareness through lectures by native authorities as well as excursions to local and national sites of interest. Among other destinations, we journey to the Monteverde Cloud Forest, the Arenal volcano, Granada, Nicaragua, and several national parks. Barnett

SPAN 295 (3) - Special Topics in Conversation - topical description - Prerequisite: Three credits from any 200-level Spanish course or permission of the instructor. This course is designed to expand students' conversational and comprehension skills in Spanish, through the viewing, analysis, and exploration of some of the most representative films produced in Spain and Latin America. In addition to in-class discussions, students are expected to write film reviews and prepare oral presentations on aspects of the films studied in class.

SPAN 395 (3) - La poesķa del pueblo - topical description - Prerequisite: Spanish 215. A course about the traditions and folklore of Spain; the heroes and heroines of popular history as presented in the songs and poems of Spain; folk celebrations of the summer solstice; legends surrounding El Cid; gypsies and flamenco. In this course we study the romances or ballads of medieval Spain, as well as Garcia Lorca's Romancero Gitano, the art of flamenco, and the copla espańola that gave voice to the people during Franco's time. The course includes guest lectures by Professor Martha Miller of University of North Carolina Charlotte, a specialist in the art of the copla. (HL, GE3) West-Settle

Theater (THTR)

THTR 290 (3) - Topics in Theater:Motion Picture Screenwriting - topical description - No prerequisites. This seminar explores the evolution of writing for film and reviews the basic techniques of modern writing for visual media. Included in this study is the story structure of film, the unique format for writing in the discipline, and the elements of plot and character development. Students are required to write a 20-page screenplay and a promotional treatment. (HA, GE4a)  Dean

University Scholars (UNIV)

University Scholars 202 (3) and Art 380A (3) - Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Paintings - topical description - No prerequisites. Permission of the instructor required. The two courses are corequisites of each other. This six-credit, study-abroad experience develops students' fundamental understanding of certain physical, chemical, biological, and geological concepts and utilizes that vocabulary and knowledge to discuss 17th-century Dutch Art. The first half of the course involving the scientific and technical background takes place in Lexington; the second half, involving the art history, politics, religion, economics, etc., meets at the Center for European Studies (CES) Universiteit Maastricht and includes trips to museums, cathedrals, and other sites in Amsterdam, The Hague, Delft, Haarlem, and Rotterdam. The emphasis is on key aspects of optics, light, and chemical bonding needed to understand how a painting "works" and how art conservators analyze paintings in terms of conservation and authenticity using various scientific techniques (radiography, microscopy, spectroscopy, chromatography, etc.). When possible, the course develops modern notions of science with those of the 17th century in order to see how science influenced art. Students are graded, in the first half, on three or four tests; in the second half two research projects involving one paper and two Powerpoint presentations are the basis for grades. Though the working language at CES Maastricht is English, students learn key phrases in Dutch and practice the manners and customs of The Netherlands. (SC and HA; GE5c and GE4a) Uffelman (added Oct 2008)

Women's Studies (WST) Students interested in Women's Studies should plan to take Interdepartmental 120 (3), Introduction to Women's Studies and Feminist Theory, in the spring. This course now meets the requirement for credits (but not for one of the two areas) under GE 4 and for FDR HU. A list of spring-term courses from other departments that qualify for Women's Studies credits appear on the program Web site: http://womensstudies.wlu.edu/.

Women's Studies 396 (3) - Advanced Seminar: Reading Lolita in Lexington - Prerequisites: Women's Studies 120 or instructor permission. This advanced seminar uses Azar Nafisi's memoir, Reading Lolita in Tehran, as a framework for studying The Great Gatsby, Lolita, and Pride and Prejudice, while also learning about the lives of women in contemporary Iran. We study the history of Iran and the impact its Islamic revolution has had on the lives of women, while considering how the reading experiences of young Iranian women compare to those of college students at Washington and Lee. In addition to the four major texts, we read excerpts from feminist critical responses to Austen, Fitzgerald, and Nabokov, and sample some books that explore the variety of women’s experiences in Islam, such as Geraldine Brooks's Nine Parts of Desire and Alison Wearing's Honeymoon in Purdah. Requirements include 20 pages of writing, including a five-page research paper, and an oral report. Students wanting to apply this course to requirements for the English major may approach department head Lesley Wheeler for a substitution. Brodie