Official Notification of Changes Approved
Since Publication of the 2007-2008 Catalog

(Updated March 12, 2008)
New courses
Revised courses
Deleted courses
Revised degree, major, and program requirements
Policy Changes
Miscellaneous Information

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Course Additions

African-American Studies 295 (3) - Topics in African-American Studies. A focused study, without prerequisite, of various special topics in African-American Studies, such as "African-American Memoir" or "The Black Power Movement" or "Feminism and African-American Culture." May be repeated for degree credit and toward program requirements with permission and when topics differ. FDR/GE designation varies with topic. Staff. Spring

Anthropology 288 (3) - Childhood. This course explores the experience of childhood cross culturally. It investigates how different societies conceptualize children, and our readings progress through representations of the life cycle. Beginning with the topic of conception, the courses moves through issues pertaining to the fetus, infants, children, and adolescents. Discussions of socialization, discipline, emotion, education, gender, and sexuality are included, and special attention is given to the effects of war, poverty, social inequality, and disease on children and youth. Goluboff. Winter 2009 and alternate years.

Anthropology 453 (3), 456 (6), 459 (9) - Internship. Prerequisites: Grade point average of 2.500 in anthropology and 2.500 overall, and permission of instructor. Supervised anthropology laboratory or off-campus experience in a museum, research organization, cultural program, social service, or archaeological collection management organization. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Fall, Winter, Spring

Art 225 (3) - Introduction to Critical Theory and Creative Practice. This class explores the link between creative practice and critical theory, with an emphasis on contemporary visual art. Students read critical theory as a basis for understanding a variety of creative practices, and they use critical theory to conceptualize original creative processes. A research project is also assigned. Studio art course. (HA, GE4a) Ryan. Winter 2008 and alternate years.

Art 270 (3)­ Introduction to the Book Arts - A creative exploration of the tradition of the handmade book. Students learn to make several styles of binding, including accordion books, pamphlets, and Japanese bindings. They develop some skill in letterpress printing, paper decorating, and simple printmaking techniques to create original handmade books. Some readings, discussions, and slide lectures introduce students to the ingenious history of books and printing. Besides constructing imaginative individual book art projects, students create one collaborative project. (HA, GE4a) Merrill

Art 325 (3) - Issues in Contemporary Art Criticism and Theory. Through reading primary critical theory, this course examines significant ideas and issues in contemporary visual art theory and art criticism in the 20th and early 21st centuries including such concepts as: formalism; modernism; postmodernism; deconstruction; pluralism; post colonialism; feminism; theories of the avant-garde; the end of art; and semiotics. Although designed for any student with an interest in contemporary visual culture, the course will be particularly helpful for studio art majors since it will help them to place their own interests, ideas, and work in a contemporary context. Studio art course. (HA, GE4a) Ryan. Winter 2008 and alternate years.

Business Administration 196 (0) - Williams Investment Society. Prerequisite: Permission of the department head. This cocurricular educational student organization manages a portion of Washington and Lee's endowment. Students meet in formal and informal sessions conducted by faculty advisers and attend presentations made by outside speakers hosted by the Williams School. The experiential learning that occurs in this setting is grounded in fields such as accounting, economics, and finance as well the practice of investments and banking. Staff. Fall, Winter, Spring

Business Administration 390-391 (3-3) - Supervised Study Abroad: Nicaragua: Business and the Economy. Nicaragua is the second poorest nation in the Western hemisphere behind Haiti.  The primary purpose of this course is to understand why and how Nicaragua continues to be the second poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere, after Haiti. Students investigate the economic and business development issues and the role business has in hindering and/or promoting development. Areas of investigation include trade agreements, sustainable development, foreign direct investment, maquiladoras, privatization of utilities, indigenous property rights, micro‑financing, fair trade, participation of women in the economy, and local cooperatives. The course is based out of Managua for the first three weeks. Students then spend several days in a rustic setting in the mountains near Estalí to visit a peasant‑owned coffee cooperative and the Miraflor Reserve. The last week is based in Leon and includes home‑stays, a service project in the rural community of Goyena , and a continuation of our investigation of the Nicaraguan economy. Reiter. Spring 2008

Chemistry 175 (3) - Developing Outreach Activities for Local Schools. Prerequisite: Chemistry 100, Chemistry 106, or Chemistry 111. This spring term service‑learning course teaches the development of hands‑on laboratory activities to fulfill physical science goals required by the Science Standards of Learning for Virginia's Public Schools. Students create instructional science experiments for chosen age levels to explore, and implement activities with school children in Lexington City and Rockbridge County School classrooms. Students visit at least two different classrooms. Primarily a laboratory course. LaRiviere. Spring 2007 and alternate years

Chemistry 196 (3) - Nuclear Power: Energy and the Environment. This course examines the role of nuclear power as a current and future source of energy. Topics include introduction to science and technology of nuclear reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear waste, the history of nuclear power generation in the U.S. and other nations, economic, legal, and environmental issues, the risks associated with proliferation of nuclear weapons and terrorist attacks, and a comparison of nuclear power with other sources of energy. (SC, GE5c) Settle. Spring

Chemistry 342 (3) Advanced Biochemistry. Prerequisite: Either Chemistry 342, or Chemistry 341 and Biology 220. A more advanced treatment of current topics in biochemistry. Specific topics vary by year but may include enzyme/ribozyme kinetics and mechanisms, signaling pathways, biomolecular transport, chromatin structure/function, RNA processing pathways, and regulation of gene expression. LaRiviere. Spring 2008 and alternate years

Classics 224 (3) - The World of Late Antiquity. This course introduces students to the historical period between the close of the ancient world and the rise of the Middle Ages c. 250 to 650 AD). Students read primary sources and explore the historical evidence in order to investigate the reigning historical model of "Decline and Fall" inherited from Edward Gibbon and others, and study the development of Christianity and Judaism during this period. Finally, the course investigates the formation of Europe and the rise of Islam. (HU, GE4b) Johnson. Spring

Computer Science 297 (3) - Topics in Computer Science. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Readings and conferences for a student or students on topics agreed upon by the directing staff. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. A maximum of six credits may be used toward the major requirements. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Dance 130 (3) - Contemporary Dance Observation and Analysis. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. The observation and analysis of live and recorded contemporary dance focusing on the work of emerging and established choreographers. Exploration of methods for describing the moving body in space. Emphasis is placed on the written and verbal critique of contemporary dance in performance. (HA, GE4a) Davies. Fall 2007 and when departmental resources permit.

Dance 403 (3) - Directed Individual Study. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Specialized applied research in dance. This course requires study through both practical experience in technique as well as a product-oriented experience through written work analyzing the historical and kinesthetic aspects of movement. A performance and written product are the results. May not be repeated. Davies.

Economics 195 (3) - Special Topics in Economics for Non-Majors. This course is offered, without prerequisite and typically for freshmen, on various topics in economics. The course emphasis changes from term to term and is announced prior to PreRegistration. (SS1, GE6a.) Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Economics 231 (3) - Economics of Race and Ethnicity. Prerequisite: Economics 101 and 102. The purpose of this seminar is to enhance understanding of the link between race and ethnicity, and economic outcomes. Participants explore a number of topics through assigned reading and classroom discussion including; what are race and ethnicity, economic theories of the discrimination, social-psychological insight about stereotyping, legacy impacts on social-economic status, affirmative action, wealth disparities between racial/ethnic groups, the role of communities in shaping economic and social well-being, concepts of identity, the connection between skin shade and economic outcomes, the contribution of assimilation and English language proficiency to the economic outcomes of immigrant Latino workers, the racial/ethnic composition of schools and academic achievement. The course fosters the development and use of critical thinking, effective writing, and oral presentation skills. Goldsmith. Spring 2009 and alternate years.

Economics 236 (3) ‑ Economics of Education. Prerequisite: Economics 101. Investigation of the role of education on outcomes for both nations and individuals. Understanding of the factors in the education production function. Emphasis on the challenges of pre-K‑12 education in the United States; secondary coverage of postsecondary education. Analysis of the effect of existing policies and potential reforms on the achievement and opportunities available to poor and minority students. Diette.

Economics 237 (3) ‑ Health Economics. Prerequisite: Economics 101. Overview of the existing institutions and policies in the United States health care system. Application of standard microeconomic models to analyze how the current structure influences the allocation and distribution of health services. Investigation of potential health care reforms. Diette

Economics 238 (3) - Poverty and Inequality in the United States. Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. This course takes an economic approach toward investigating recent trends in poverty and inequality in the U.S., focusing on evaluating alternative explanations for who becomes (or remains) poor in this country. Factors considered in this investigation include labor-market trends, educational opportunities, family background, racial discrimination, and neighborhood effects. Aspects of public policy designed to alleviate poverty are discussed, as well as its failures and successes. As part of the required service-learning requirement, students serve in local organizations in order to gain personal experiences that can inform their understanding of course material. Leibel. Winter

Economics 239 (3) - The Economics of Crime and Punishment. Prerequisite: Economics 101. This course explores topics of crime and criminal justice in the United States from an economic perspective. Using both theoretical and empirical methodologies, the decisions of criminals (and would-be criminals) are examined, along with markets for criminal behavior and the goods and services produced within them, and public policies aimed at dealing with crime. Sample topics include: Does crime pay? Does the government regulate crime too much or too little? Does prison "harden" criminals or rehabilitate them? Why does the U.S. imprison more people per-capita than any other country? An emphasis of the course is to explore myths and realities regarding the relationships between poverty and crime. Leibel. Spring 2009 and alternate years

Economics 244 (3) - Economics of the Auto Industry. Prerequisite: Economics 101. For many of us, our lives revolve around automobiles. They affect where we live, how we get to work, where we shop. They are cultural icons, from the "pimping" of cars made famous long ago by Tom Wolfe, to chase scenes in movies, to means of socialization and symbols of status. The development, production, distribution, servicing, repair, and eventual disposal of cars is a huge industry, as is the construction and maintenance of the infrastructure over which vehicles travel, a constant component of which is the manufacturing and retailing of vehicles, and the economics thereof. Smitka. Spring 2008 and alternate years

Economics 301 (3) - Strategy and Equilibrium. Prerequisites: Economics 210 and Mathematics 101. Many interesting questions in microeconomics require that we abandon the assumptions typically made in the analysis of perfectly competitive markets. Buyers and sellers may be small in number; information may be privately held by only some agents; institutions establishing or enforcing property rights may be lacking or imperfect. Externalities abound and uncertainty is the rule. This course examines methods of analysis outside the perfect competition framework with a particular emphasis on game theory - the formal modeling of strategic interactions. The basic game-theoretic solution concepts of Nash Equilibrium, subgame perfection, and Bayesian equilibrium are introduced in the context of a broad array of topics. Applications may include auctions, bargaining, oligopoly, labor market signaling, public finance, and insurance. Class Heavy emphasis on problem solving. Guse. Winter 

Economics 303 (3) - Topics in Econometrics. Prerequisites: Economics 203. Further explorations of regression models, building on the material from Economics 203. The course begins with a review of the OLS model and continues to alternative models, answering questions such as: How do we proceed if the dependent variable is categorical, rather than continuous (as in the OLS model)? How might we proceed if one or more of the Classical Assumptions are violated? Underlying model assumptions and consequences are discussed. Possible topics include models for categorical outcomes, 2SLS/IV, matching methods, quantile regression, time-series analysis, and panel data models. The course emphasizes the use of data and student-directed research. Anderson, Blunch. Fall, Winter

Economics 316 (3) - Central Banking. Prerequisites: Economics 215 and permission of the instructor. This seminar explores the theory, institutions, and history of central banks. It is a reading- and research-intensive course designed to give the student a deep knowledge of theoretical and current issues facing central banks. Readings include classic theoretical studies of central banks by economists such as Bagehot, Friedman, and Schwartz, as well as modern studies such as Leijonhufvud, Goodhart, and Eichengreen. Each student chooses additional readings from the area of theory, history, institutions, or people related to central banking. Hooks. Spring 2009 and alternate years

Economics 317 (3) - The European Monetary Union. Prerequisite: Economics 215. This course explores monetary union within the European Union. Topics considered include: economic theories about monetary union; policy choices for the new European Central Bank; labor market adjustments to a common monetary policy; fiscal policy co-ordination among participating countries; and possible expansion of the euro area. Students research topics by country and share their findings through oral and written presentations. Consideration is given to how this information helps to explain current events and how it influences actions taken by policymakers. In addition, the course explores the broader issues related to the impact of economic integration on politics and culture. Hooks. Spring 2010 and alternate years.

Economics 382 (3) - Health Economics in Developing Countries. Prerequisite: Economics 203. A survey of the major issues of health economics, with a focus on the experiences of developing countries. Health structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited health performance. Health goals and policy alternatives. An examination of the role of econometrics in the evaluation of health programs is a major part of the course, including review of instrumental variables and matching methods. Blunch. Spring 2008 and alternate years

Education 305 (3) ‑ Teaching Elementary Reading. Prerequisites: Education 200 and admission to teacher education. Corequisite: Education 306. This course prepares students to teach reading in the elementary classroom. Participants develop an understanding of the reading process, consider theories of reading instruction, examine current research in reading development, and investigate elements of a balanced literacy program. Strategies for teaching word study, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and spelling are studied for each developmental reading stage. Students also examine formal and informal diagnostic techniques and instructional procedures for dealing with various types of reading difficulties. Sigler. Winter

Education 306 (1) ‑ Practicum: Teaching Elementary Reading. Corequisite: Education 305. Provides students with the opportunity to observe and practice the reading methods used in elementary education. Sigler. Winter

Engineering 312 (3) - Heat Transfer. Prerequisites: Engineering 311 and Mathematics 332. Principles of heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation. Topics include transient and steady state analysis, boiling, condensation, and heat exchanger analysis. Application of these principles to selected problems in engineering. Kuehner. Fall

Environmental Studies 390 (3) - Special Topics: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Issues. Prerequisites: Environmental Studies 110 and 9 credits at the 200 level or above in the environmental studies major. This course examines causes of, consequences of, and solutions to contemporary environmental problems. Though topics vary from term to term, the course has a specific focus on the integration of environmental science, policy, and thought so students understand better the cause and effect relationships that shape the interaction between human and environmental systems. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Environmental Studies 493 (3-3) - Honors Thesis in Environmental Studies. Prerequisite: Permission of the environmental studies faculty. Staff. Fall-Winter

First-year Seminars:
Art 121 (3) ‑ FS: Drawing I (GE4a) Spring, 2007
Art 180 (3) ‑ FS: The Silk Road: Connecting East and West (GE4a) Spring, 2007
Classics 204 (Literature in Translation 204) (3) ‑ FS: Augustan Rome (GE3) Spring, 2007|
Computer Science 180 (3) - FS: Robot and Mind
English 180 (3) ‑ FS: Laughing at Love: Shakespeare's Comedies (GE3) Spring, 2007
Geology 100 (4) ‑ FS: General Geology with Field Emphasis (GE5a) Spring, 2007, Fall 2007
History 180 (3) ‑ FS: Natural Disasters in the Americas (GE4b) Spring, 2007
Journalism 180 (3) ‑ FS: Religion, Culture, and the Global Media. (GE4 as credit but not for areas) Spring, 2007
Literature in Translation 180 (3) - FS:Tragedies East and West. (HL) Spring, 2008
Music 180 (3) ‑ FS: The Voice: Sound and Science (GE4a) Spring, 2007
Philosophy 180 (3) - FS: Science, Culture and Self (HU) Fall, 2007
Philosophy 195A (3) ‑ FS: The Concept of Honor for Freshmen (GE4c) Spring, 2007
Poverty and Human Capability Studies 101 (3) FS: Poverty: An Interdisciplinary Introduction (HU) Fall, 2007
Religion 181 (3) Perspectives on Death and Dying (HU) Fall, 2007

Geology 144 (3) - History of Geology. A history of geology, from the 17th century to today. Topics include: nature of geologic time (cyclical versus linear) and duration of geologic events (uniformitarianism versus catastrophism), development of the geologic time scale, debates about the age of the Earth, continental drift and its rejection by the scientific community, and the formulation and acceptance of plate tectonics. Developments in geology are discussed in the context of various philosophies of science, including ideas promoted by Bacon, Gilbert, Chamberlin, Popper, Kuhn, and others. (SC, GE5c) Rahl. Fall

Geology 335 (3) - Petroleum Geology and Geophysics. Prerequisites: Geology 100 or 101 and permission of instructor. A survey of the theory and practice of petroleum geology and geophysics. Topics covered include the nature and origin of petroleum, a study of where oil and gas accumulate from the perspective of basin analysis, and the basic principles of reflection seismology and petrophysics. The key petroleum system elements of charge, seal, reservoir and structure are studied within the context of how a geologist or geophysicist goes about exploring for and developing petroleum accumulations. Emphasis is placed on the use of industry software and data to analyze geologic features, deposits, and basins that are relevant to petroleum exploration and production. Connors. Winter 2009 and alternate years.

Geology 360 (3) - Tectonics and Thermochronology. Prerequisites: Geology 100 or 101. An introduction to mountain belts and thermochronologic techniques used to quantify tectonic processes. Topics include: orogenic wedges, metamorphic core complexes, rifting, strike-slip systems, orogenic plateaus, the relationship between tectonics and climate, and the use of bedrock and detrital thermochronology to measure rates of faulting, erosion, and exhumation. Concepts are discussed in the context of natural examples, including the Appalachians, the European Alps, the Himalaya, the Andes, and the Basin and Range Province of the southwestern United States. Rahl. Fall 2008 and alternate years.

Greek 309 (3) - Greek Prose Composition. Prerequisite: Greek 202 or permission of the instructor. This course offers a review of Greek grammar, an introduction to some finer points of syntax, and a comparative review of literary styles in ancient Greek prose. Students hone their language and literary skills by composing passages in ancient Greek, in the various styles of selected ancient authors. The course also serves as an introduction to the artistry of literary prose in ancient Greek. (HL, GE3) Crotty. Spring 2007 and every third year

Greek 395 (3) - Topics in Advanced Greek Literature. Prerequisite: Greek 202 or equivalent. Selected subject areas in Greek literature. The topic selected varies from year to year. May be repeated for degree credit with permission of instructor and if the topics are different. (HL, GE3) Staff

History 170 (3) - History of Islamic Civilization I: Origins to 1500. This course surveys the political, social, and cultural history of the Islamic World from the 7th to 15th centuries, with particular attention paid to the diverse geographical and cultural contexts in which pre‑modern Islamic civilization flourished. Topics include the origins of Islam in late Antiquity; the development of Islamic religious, political, and cultural institutions; the flourishing of medieval Islamic education, science, and literature; the tension among state, ethnic, sectarian, and global Muslim identities; and the emergence of a distinctly Muslim approach to historiography. (HU, GE4b) Hatcher. Fall

History 171 (3) - History of Islamic Civilization II: 1500 to the Present. This course surveys the political, social, and cultural history of the Islamic World from the 16th to 21st centuries, with particular attention paid to the diverse experiences of the various regions that make up the Islamic world.  Topics include the emergence of the early modern centralizing states in Iran, Turkey, India, and elsewhere; the spread on Islamic religious and political practices in Africa and Asia; the colonial and post-colonial confrontation between the Islamic World and Europe; and the evolution of new political, cultural, and intellectual movements as Muslim nations in the context of globalization. (HU, GE4b) Hatcher. Winter

History 336 (3) - Environmental History of Latin America. Analysis of diverse people's historical interactions with Latin American environments to show how people created environments and how nature affected human history. Probes social, spiritual, economic, political, and intellectual forces influencing human‑environment relations over time. Delves into many geographical areas and themes, including Amazon rainforests, Andean farms, Patagonian peaks, the Panama Canal, Costa Rican national parks, and Caribbean sugar plantations, as well as US coffee shops, supermarkets, and fast food chains. (HU, GE4b) Carey Winter 2008 and alternate years

History 337 (3) - Revolutions in Latin America. Detailed analysis of 20th‑century revolutionary movements in Latin America. Examines historical power struggles, social reforms, and major political changes, with in‑depth exploration of Mexico, Bolivia, Cuba, Peru, Chile, and Nicaragua. Explores the social movements and ideologies of under‑represented historical actors, such as peasants, guerrillas, artists, workers, women, students, and indigenous people. (HU, GE4b) Carey. Fall 2007 and alternate years

History 350 (3) - Going Nuclear: American Society, Culture and Politics in the Cold War Era. This seminar offers a topical survey of the popular culture, social changes, and domestic politics of the Cold War United States. Themes covered in this course include the dawn of the atomic age, the social and cultural anxieties produced by the Cold War, the privatization of suburban family life, the problems of historical memory, the boundaries of political dissent, and the relationship between international and domestic politics. This course pays special attention to how popular culture responded to, interpreted, and shaped key episodes in the recent national past. (HU, GE4b) Michelmore. Fall 2008 and alternate years.

History 354 (3) - The History of the American Welfare State. This course uses a lecture and surveys the history of the U.S. welfare state from its origins in the poorhouses of the nineteenth century to the "end of welfare as we knew it" in 1996. The historical development of the American welfare state is covered, touching on such key policy developments as Progressive Era mothers' pension programs, the Social Security Act of 1935, Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, and the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act. Although this course focuses primarily on the United States, students will also be asked to compare the U.S. case with the welfare states of other western democracies - including Great Britain, France and the Scandinavian nations - to understand how and why the United States took such a different path. Moving beyond simple policy history, students engage such questions as how the U.S. welfare state has reflected, reinforced, and in some cases produced class, racial, and gendered identities. (HU, GE4b) Michelmore. Spring 2008 and alternate years.

History 387 (3) - The Struggle Over China's Environment. The course covers the more recent periods of China's so‑called "3,000 years of unsustainable growth" from about AD 618 into the present. Themes focus on China's historical experience with sedentary agriculture, fossil fuel and nuclear energy, wildlife and forest management, disease, water control, and major construction projects like the Great Wall. (HU, GE4b) Bello. Fall 2009 and alternate years.

Italian 111S (4) - Elementary Italian I at John Cabot. Required for students without Italian language background. A course in elementary Italian which emphasizes grammar and the skills of speaking, writing, reading and listening comprehension, with special emphasis on conversational practice in context.. Youngblood.

Journalism 280 (3) - Legal Reporting. Prerequisite: Journalism 202 and at least sophomore standing. The principles and techniques of covering the United States justice system, with emphasis on courts and legal issues at the subnational level. Content includes study of the Constitutional basis for and organization of the state and federal court systems. Extensive practice covering local court cases and preparing multimedia news stories on deadline is required. Students may also cover cases in the several legal clinics associated with the School of Law. Staff. Fall, Winter

Latin American and Caribbean Studies 101 (3) - Introduction to Latin American and Caribbean Studies. A multi‑disciplinary, introductory course designed to familiarize students with the pertinent issues that determine or affect the concept of identity in Latin American and Caribbean societies through a study of their geography, history, politics, economics, literature, and culture. The purpose of the course is to provide a framework or overview to enhance understanding in the students' future courses in particular disciplines and specific areas of Latin American and Caribbean study. (HU) Barnett. Fall

Latin American and Caribbean Studies 195 (3) - Special Topics in Latin American and Caribbean Studies. A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme relevant to the overall understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean region, such as Hispanic Feminisms, the Indigenous Americas, or Shifting Borders, among others. As an introductory seminar, topics are selected with the purpose in mind to present the student with a broad, regional view within the scope of a restricted focus or medium. (FDR and GE designation varies with topic, as approved in advance) Staff.

Latin American and Caribbean Studies 396 (3) - Advanced Seminar in Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Prerequisites: LACS 101, completion of six credits for the program's requirements at the 200 level or above, at least junior standing, and permission of the instructor. This course provides an opportunity for advanced students to explore in detail a specific aspect of Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Specific topics vary and are determined, in part, by student interest. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit.

Latin American and Caribbean Studies 421 (1), 422 (2), and 423 (3) ‑ Interdisciplinary Research. Prerequisites: LACS 101, junior or senior standing, and permission of the instructor. Independent research in a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more LACS faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students share their work with the public through a public presentation. Staff. Fall, Winter, Spring.

Literature in Translation 180 (3) - FS:Tragedies East and West. This course introduces students to the topic of tragedy in both China and the West from its origin in Greece and Chinese Yuan dynasty up to modern times. It examines the concept of tragedy as a literary genre in the West, its evolution in history, and the aptness in its application to Chinese drama. Primary texts from Western and Chinese classical drama as well as from the modern period are selected as a basis for comparison, with a view to helping students form a comparative perspective in their appreciation of both Chinese and Western drama. Course participants engage in frequent discussions and writing assignments. (HL) Fu.

Literature in Translation 220 (3) - Modern Chinese Literature in Translation. A survey of Chinese literature from the beginning of the Republic through the Post-Mao era. Taught in English, the course presupposes no previous knowledge of China or Chinese culture. Students explore different literary movements as well as modern Chinese culture and society through selected literary works from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The course discusses issues such as feminism, gender and cultural identities, the continuity and discontinuity of traditional values in Chinese life, the relationship between the individual and society, and changes of ideology. (HL, GE3) Chang. Winter

Literature in Translation 259 (3) - The French Caribbean Novel. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. A stylistic and thematic study of identity acquisition through exile , marginalization, struggle, reintegration and cultural blending or any other sociologically significant phenomenon reflected in the literary works of the most important post‑colonial French West Indian authors. Spawned largely by Aimé Césaire's book‑length poem, Notebook of a Return to My Native Land, French Caribbean novels have proliferated since the end of World War II. After taking a brief look first at this seminal poem, the course then focuses analytically on novels written by authors such as Haitian Jacques Roumain, Guadeloupeans Simone Schwarz‑Bart and Maryse Condé, and Martinicans Joseph Zobel, Raphaël Confiant, and Édouard Glissant. Several films based on, or pertaining to, Césaire's poem and to certain novels are also viewed. (HL, GE3) Fralin. Spring 2009 and alternate years.

Music 116 (1) - Bentley Musical Rehearsals. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. This course is designed for rehearsal of music in preparation for the annual Bentley Musical. Only those cast in the production may enroll. Rehearsals are scheduled each year subject to the availability of the cast and instructor. While some cast members rehearse during weekdays, most should expect evening and weekend rehearsals. An audition is required and such dates are announced in advance by the Theater and Music Departments. Myers. Winter

Note: Limits of eight credits in ensemble courses (Music 108-116) and of nine credits for non-majors and 12 credits for majors from applied music courses (Music 141-143, 241-243, 341-343, 441-443) allowable toward a degree. Credits taken in excess of these limits will be treated as repeats of the earliest unrepeated credit of each kind.

Music 195 (1) - Topics in Sound Technology.

Music 295 (3) - Topics in Music. Selected studies in music with a focus on history and culture, non-classical genres, ethnomusicological topics, or performance. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. (HA, GE4a) Staff. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Philosophy 216 (3) - Feminist Social and Political Philosophy. This course critically examines the gender norms that pervade our identities, govern our everyday behavior, and organize our social life. Questions addressed may include: What is gender? In what ways does it affect the quality of women's and men's lives? Is gender difference natural? Is it valuable? Can it contribute to, or interfere with, human flourishing? Can a gendered society be just? What can any of us do to promote good relations among women and men? (HU, GE4c) Bell. Fall 2007 and alternate years. This course will also count in the Program in Women's Studies, requirement 2b.

Philosophy 320 (3) - Distributive Justice. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. How should the product of social cooperation be distributed in a just society? Is wealth redistribution through taxes fair? Is it a fair distribution of wealth that a just society depends on, or is distributive justice more complicated than that? Should we have welfare programs, and if so, what should they be like? Our studies may include John Rawls' political liberalism, Robert Nozick's libertarianism, Ronald Dworkin's equality of resources, Amartya Sen's capabilities approach, Stuart White's justice as fair reciprocity, and criticisms of the distributive paradigm. (HU, GE4c) Bell. Fall 2008 and alternate years. This course will also count in the Program in Poverty and Human Capability, requirement 2.

Philosophy 401 (1), 402 (2) ‑Directed Individual Study. Prerequisite: Permission of the department. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff.

Physical Education 177 (0) - Dance Conditioning. Course work combines the study of modern and ethnic dance techniques, jazz, ballet, and improvisation with the somatic principles of Alexander Technique, Developmental Technique, and Bartenieff Fundamentals to provide a comprehensive training regimen for the development of physical endurance, strength, flexibility, and coordination. Classes include a 30‑minute aerobic dance sequence of original choreography followed by an additional 30 minutes of pilates‑based mat exercises, yoga, and other innovative training methods. Participants receive training in applied imagery skills for dynamic alignment, active‑isolated stretching, stress relieving, relaxation techniques, and experiential anatomy. (FP, GE7) Staff. Fall, Winter.

Physics 345 (3) - Statistical Physics. (revised and renumbered from Physics 245) Prerequisite: Physics 340 and either Physics 210 or Engineering 240. A study of the statistical methods used in various branches of physics. The Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distribution functions will be derived and applied to problems in thermodynamics and the physics of solids. Mazilu. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Politics 272 (3), Social Revolutions, newly cross-listed with Sociology 272 (3), Social Revolutions. The course meets FDR SS4 and GE6d requirements.

Politics 247 (3) - Latin American Politics. This course will focus on Latin American politics during the 20th and 21st centuries. Major topics include: democracy and authoritarianism; representation and power; populism, corporatism, socialism, and communism; and questions of poverty, inequality, and economic growth. The course will place particular emphasis on the Cuban and Mexican Revolutions, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, and Peru. In addition, the course examines political and economic relations between the United States and Latin America. (SS2, GE6b) Dickovick. Fall 2008 and alternate years

Politics 290 (3) - Seminar in Politics, Literature and the Arts. Prerequisites: Set by instructor, vary with topic. In this course, we study how literature, film, and other media are used to examine political themes and how they are used to achieve political ends. We address how politics shapes the arts and how the arts shapes politics. The topic is announced at registration. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Only one such seminar may be counted towards the Politics major. (SS2, GE6b) Staff. Offered in spring when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Politics 381 (3) - International Political Economy. Prerequisite: Economics 102, Politics 105, or permission of instructor. This course provides an intermediate‑level introduction to the major actors, questions, and theories in the field of international political economy (IPE). Course participants discuss political and economic interactions in the areas of international trade, fiscal and monetary policy, and exchange rates; discuss globalization in historical and contemporary perspectives; and examine the international politics of the major intergovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, states, and other institutional actors in the global economy. (SS2, GE6b) Dickovick. Spring 2009 and alternate years

Portuguese 101 (3) Beginning Portuguese II. Prerequisite: Portuguese 100. A second introductory level course designed to help prepare students in Portuguese Language proficiency for participation in the US/Brazil Consortium for Environmental Studies, a federally funded Washington and Lee University exchange program with the Universidade do Amazonas and the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Non exchange students are also welcome to take the course. Basic language skills are taught in preparation for a Portuguese Language immersion course taught in Brazil as part of the exchange program. The immersion course focuses on language skills required for environmental studies. Staff

Psychology 295 (1, 2 or 3) - Current Advances in Psychological Science. Prerequisite varies; determined at time of offering. Seminar topics and specific prerequisites vary with instructor and term. These seminars are designed to introduce students to an area of current interest in the field of psychology. Students receive an overview of the experimental research and/or applied practices that have advanced an area of psychological science. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different. Staff. Offered when student interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Religion 106 (3) - Introduction to Judaism. Through a variety of sources, including Talmudic debate, novels, liturgy, memoirs, film, and history, this course introduces the main concepts, literature, and practices of the classical forms of Judaism that began in the first centuries C.E., and then examines how Judaism has changed during the last two centuries, in modernist movements (Reform, Neo‑Orthodoxy, Zionism) and contemporary fundamentalist movements (Ultra‑Orthodoxy, messianic settler Zionism), as well as current ideas and issues.  (HU, GE4d) Marks. Fall

Religion 153 (3) - Jesus in Fact, Fiction, and Film. A study of representations of Jesus in history, fiction, and film and the ways in which they both reflect and generate diverse cultural identities from antiquity to the present. The course begins with the historical Jesus and controversies about his identity in antiquity and then focuses on parallel controversies in modern and post‑modern fiction and film. Readings include early Christian literature (canonical and non‑canonical), several modern novels and works of short fiction, and theoretical works on the relationship of literature to religion. In addition, we study several cinematic treatments of Jesus dating from the beginnings of film‑making to the present. (HU, GE4d) Brown. Winter 2009 and alternate years

Religion 282 (3) - The Qur'an. For Muslim believers, the Qur’an (the "Recitation") is the word of the One God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad and the heart of Islamic faith and practice.  This course explores the themes and content of the Qur'an; the Qur'an's original context in the life and society of the Prophet Muhammad; traditional and modern modes of Qur'anic analysis and interpretation; and the significance of the Qur'an and its interpretation for Islamic law, ritual, ethics, theology, aesthetics, and devotion.  The Qur'an is read in English-language interpretation and in tandem with traditional and modern examples of Qur'anic exegesis (tafsir). (HU, GE4d) Hatcher. Fall 2009 and every third year

Religion 283 (3) - Sufism: Islamic Mysticism. This course explores the mystical expressions and institutions known as Sufism within the Islamic community. Topics include the elaboration of Sufism from the core tenets of Islam; Sufi practices of ecstasy and discipline; the artistic and literary products of the Sufi experience; the institutions of Sufi orders, saints, shrines, and popular practices; and the debates among Muslims over the place of Sufism within the greater tradition of Islam. (HU, GE4d) Hatcher. Winter 2009 and every third year

Religion 287 (3) - Central Asian Islam and The Religions of The Silk Road. Central Asia has long been a crossroads of peoples and ideas, connecting India, China, the Middle East, and the northern steppes of what is now Russia. This course explores this region's rich religious history and diversity in three parts: the religions of the ancient "Silk Road”" (including Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Manichaeism); Islam's arrival in Central Asia and how Islam was transformed in the process; and the response of Central Asia’s modern Muslim communities to the advent of colonialism, Communism, Economic Liberalism, and politically-mobilized Islam. (HU, GE4d) Hatcher. Fall 2008 and every third year

Spanish 201 (6) - Supervised Study Abroad: Costa Rica. Prerequisite: Spanish 162, 164, or equivalent, permission of the instructor, and approval of the International Education Committee. Direct exposure to the language, people, and culture of Costa Rica. Designed to improve grammar and vocabulary of the advanced student through intensive training in Spanish with special emphasis on oral proficiency. The program includes a community‑based service learning component and excursions to local and national sites of interest, with special attention to local ecological sites. Staff. Spring 2008 and alternate years.

Spanish 324 (3) - Visions of the Nation: Romanticism and the Generation of '98. Prerequisites: Spanish 208 and 215. A study of the contrasting identities of Spain, her land and peoples, as represented by Romanticism and the Generation of 1898. From the romantic period students read the popular and folkloric "romances" of Duque de Rivas and the works of Mariano José de Larra. Works from the more philosophical Generation of 1898 include: El árbol de la ciencia by Pío Baroja, the poetry of Antonio Machado, and various texts of Miguel de Unamuno. (HL, GE3) West-Settle. Fall 2010 and alternate years

Spanish 328 (3) - Contemporary Spanish Poetry. Prerequisites: Spanish 208 and 215. A study of Spanish poetry within its historical context from Romanticism until the present day. Special emphasis is given to the generations of 1898 and 1927, the poetry of the Spanish Civil War and the Franco period. Representative authors include Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, and Gloria Fuertes. (HL, GE3) West Settle. Winter 2009 and alternate years

Spanish 344 (3) - Spanish-American Poetry. Prerequisites: Spanish 207 and 215. Analysis of the most relevant poetic texts of Spanish-America, including U.S. Hispanic poetry, beginning with precursors of the 20th-century poetry and spanning to contemporary works. Representative works include those by Octavio Paz, Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda, Nicanor Parra, Ernesto Cardenal, Raúl Zurita, among others. (HL, GE3) Mereles-Olivera. Winter 2009 and alternate years

Spanish 346 (3) - Spanish-American Essay. Prerequisites: Spanish 207 and 215. Readings in Spanish-American Essay with emphasis on the development of thought in literature and culture throughout its history. Special emphasis on prominent writers such as José Carlos Mariátegui, Octavio Paz, José Martí, José Vasconcelos, and Victoria Ocampo, among others. (HL, GE3) Mereles-Olivera. Winter 2008 and alternate years

Spanish 348 (3) - Spanish-American Women Writers. Prerequisites: Spanish 207 and 215. An examination of the role of women writers in the development of Spanish-American literary history, including U.S. Hispanic writers. Textual and cultural analysis of readings from multiple genres by authors such as Poniatowska, Ferré, Bombal, Mastretta, Gambaro, Lispector, Valenzuela, Castellanos, Cisneros, Esquivel, Peri Rossi, and Allende among others. (HL, GE3) Staff. Fall 2008 and alternate years

Spanish 350 (3) - The Cuban Story. Prerequisites: Spanish 207 and 215. A multi-genre examination of 20th-century Cuba as its own "story". Beginning with the first European account of Columbus, to insights from slaves, to finally more recent writers who question its future, the course presents the development of Cuban society as its own narrative. Major readings by Manzano, Barnet, Marti, Carpentier, Castro, Guevara, Garcia, and Hernandez Diaz among others. Shorter anthologized works by Guillen, Lezama Lima, Valdes, Novas Calvo, Cabrera Infante, and Sarduy among others. Films by Guitierrz Alea, Vega, Solas, and Tabio, among others. (HL, GE3) Barnett. Fall 2009 and alternate years

Theater 493 (3-3) - Honors Thesis. Prerequisites: Completion of the required courses for the major, a 3.500 grade-point average in courses used for the major, and permission of the department. Students must have completed advanced theater courses in their area of interest, demonstrated ability in the area of interest as evidenced by course work, performance and/or production experience, and completion of additional area-specific requirements. An advanced theater course that serves as a capstone to the major. Theater majors selected by the department conduct advanced theater research and individual artistic preparation, contribute artistically to the department’s performance season, and produce a significant written thesis under the guidance of a thesis adviser. Staff. Fall-Winter

Course Revisions

Art 360 (3), Photography IV, to Art 361

Art 260 (3), Photography III, to Art 360

Art 161 (3), Photography II, to Art 260

Art 270 (3), Introduction to the Artist's Book - FDR from HU to HA effective Spring, 2008

Biology 220 and 221: Genetics and Genetics Laboratory - does not meet GE5 requirement as stated on page 136 of the 2007-08 catalog.

Biology 242, Field Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles - from six credits to four credits beginning in Spring 2008

Business Administration 195 - Selected Topics in Business Administration  - from three credits only to one, two, or three credits

Classics 288 (3) Supervised Study Abroad: Rome - approved for Spring 2008 linking as co-requisites Classics 288 (3), Supervised Study Abroad: Rome and Ancient Italy and Religion 295 (3), Study Abroad: The Grandeur that was Rome and the Rise of Christianity. Religion 295 was approved as FDR HU or GE4d.

Dance 110 (1-3) - University Dance.  This course may be repeated for up to nine credits.

Economics: Approved the following changes in economics (for 2008-09 catalog)
-               renumber the following courses within the same level.
Economics 214 to Economics 225 (3) - Industrial Revolutions
Economics 208 to Economics 226 (3) - Economic Themes in Lit and Film
Economics 205 to Economics 235 (3) - Economics of Social Issues
Economics 240 to Economics 243 (3) - Government and Business (Industrial Organization)
Economics 381 to Economics 356 (3) - Economics of the Environment in Developing Countries 

-               renumber the following courses to a different level (for 2008-09 catalog)
Economics 390 to Economics 211 (3) ‑ Macroeconomic Theory
Economics 360 to Economics 215 (3) ‑ Money and Banking
Economics 320 to Economics 220 (3) ‑ Mathematical Economics
Economics 304 to Economics 221 (3) ‑ Experimental Economics
Economics 315 to Economics 224 (3) ‑ American Economic History
Economics 330 to Economics 230 (3) ‑ Labor Economics
Economics 348 to Economics 248 (3) ‑ Economic Analysis of the Law
Economics 350 to Economics 250 (3) ‑ Public Finance
Economics 370 to Economics 270 (3) ‑ International Trade
Economics 371 to Economics 271 (3) ‑ International Finance
Economics 332 to Economics 275 (3) ‑ Comparative Labor Markets
Economics 385 to Economics 288 (3) ‑ Study Abroad
Economics 386 to Economics 289 (3) ‑ Study Abroad

Economics 398 (3) - Field-Specific Research Seminar in Economics. Prerequisites: Economics 203, 210, and 211. Students work through the original literature in a given field within the discipline of economics. Emphasis is on critical understanding of that literature. Required written work and class discussion focuses on summarizing and reviewing articles, gaining insight into the current economic knowledge documented in that literature, and identifying future research questions implied by the current literature. Student effort culminates with a detailed and rigorous proposal of an independent research project for ECON 399 (3), Capstone Seminar in Economics. Staff. Fall and Winter

Education 210 (1-3) - Practicum. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and Education 200. Intended for students interested in working in an educational setting. This practical experience focuses on elementary and secondary instruction. Students study teaching and learning by observing and assisting teachers in the local school systems. To examine the relationship between theory and practice, students also participate in focused discussions during a weekly seminar on topics, such as classroom climate, learning styles, curriculum design, student motivation, ongoing assessment, and instructional strategies. Students spend 30 hours per credit observing and assisting in the classroom. Required for teacher licensure in Virginia. May be repeated for a maximum of three credits with permission. Staff. Fall, Winter

English 380 (3), Advanced Seminar: Supervised Study in Great Britain - Approved for Spring 2008 linking as co-requisites English 380 (3), Advanced Seminar: Supervised Study in Great Britain and Politics 396 (3), Seminar in Political Philosophy: The Making of the Modern Self in Theory and Performance.

Engineering 251 (Physics 251), Experimental Methods in Physics and Engineering: from 4 credits to 3 credits.

Environmental Studies 240: renumber the Environmental Studies 240 (3) - Global Environmental Governance: Law, Policy, and Economics, to Environmental Studies 381

French 274 (3) - Cinéma français et francophone: 1980‑2000. Prerequisite: French 261 or equivalent or permission of instructor. An introduction to the study of film in French. Students familiarize themselves with the vocabulary and analytical tools necessary to analyze, discuss films and write about them. This course shows how film language has evolved since the New Wave of the 1960s through the critical study of selected films, representative of some of the major trends of the French and Francophone cinema production of the 1980‑2000 period. Viewings, presentations, discussions, and papers in French for development of communication skills. (HL, GE3) Frégnac‑Clave

Geology 350 (3) - Structural Geology and Tectonics. Prerequisites: Geology 160 and Mathematics 101. Description and methods of analysis of large- and small-scale structural features of the Earth's crust. Topics also include the analysis of geometry, strain and stress as they relate to deformation in the earth. Rock mechanics, application of structural geology in environmental engineering and resource exploration, geometric and computational techniques used in structural analysis, interpretation of geologic maps, and the structural development of mountain systems are also covered. Laboratory course. Connors. Fall

History 104 (3) - Japan: Origins to Atomic Aftermath. This course traces the span of Japan's historical development from its origins through the Cold War, with a special, but not exclusive, emphasis on an environmental perspective. The first half of the course covers the emergence of indigenous Japanese society and its adaptation to cultural and political influences from mainland East Asia, including Buddhism, Confucianism, and Chinese concepts of empire. The second half covers Japan's successful transition from a declining Tokugawa Shogunate to a modern imperial nation to a reluctant US Cold War ally from the mid‑19th to the mid‑20th centuries. (HU, GE4b) Bello. Fall 2009 and alternate years.

Japanese 312 (3) - Advanced Japanese II. Course prerequisite(s) JAPN 311 or the equivalent and permission of the instructor. A continuation of Japanese 311 with an emphasis on reading and discussing literary works. Advanced readings in Japanese modern prose, poetry, and drama and discussion in Japanese of literature and literary criticism. (HL, GE3) Robinson, Ikeda. Winter

Physics 251 (Engineering 251), Experimental Methods in Physics and Engineering: from 4 credits to 3 credits.

revise and renumber Physics 245 (3), Statistical Physics, as follows:
Physics 345 (3) - Statistical Physics.  Prerequisite: Physics 340 and either Physics 210 or Engineering 240. A study of the statistical methods used in various branches of physics. The Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distribution functions will be derived and applied to problems in thermodynamics and the physics of solids. Mazilu. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Politics 396 (3), Seminar in Political Philosophy: The Making of the Modern Self in Theory and Performance - Approved for Spring 2008 linking as co-requisites English 380 (3), Advanced Seminar: Supervised Study in Great Britain and Politics 396 (3), Seminar in Political Philosophy: The Making of the Modern Self in Theory and Performance.

Religion 105 (3) - Introduction to Islam. This course familiarizes students with the foundations of the Islamic tradition and the diverse historical and geographical manifestations of belief and practice built upon those foundations. Throughout the course, the role of Islam in shaping cultural, social, gender, and political identities is explored. Readings are drawn from the writings of both historical and contemporary Muslim thinkers. (HU, GE4d) Hatcher. Fall

Religion 295 (3), Study Abroad: The Grandeur that was Rome and the Rise of Christianity - approved for Spring 2008 linking as co-requisites Classics 288 (3), Supervised Study Abroad: Rome and Ancient Italy and Religion 295 (3), Study Abroad: The Grandeur that was Rome and the Rise of Christianity. Religion 295 was approved as FDR HU or GE4d.

Sociology 272 (3), Social Revolutions, cross-listed as Politics 272 (3), Social Revolutions. The course meets FDR SS4 and GE6d requirements.

Spanish Number Changes (for 2008-09 catalog)
Spanish 207 to Spanish 240 - Intro a la Lit Hispanoamerican
Spanish 208 to  Spanish 220 - Intro a la Lit Espanola
Spanish 313 to Spanish 320 - Don Quijote
Spanish 311 to Spanish 322 -  La Comedia del Siglo de Oro
Spanish 314  to Spanish 326 - Modern Spanish Prose Fiction
Spanish 315 to Spanish 340 - Spanish-American Short Story
Spanish 317 to Spanish 342 - Contemp Spanish-American Novel
Spanish 395 to Spanish 397 - Peninsular Seminar
Spanish 396 to Spanish 398 - Spanish-American Seminar

Course Deletions

Economics 296 (3) - Special Topics
Economics 297 (3) - Special Topics
Economics 298 (3) - Special Topics
Economics 310 (3) - History of Economic Thought
Economics 342 (3) - Corporation and Society
Economics 396 (3) - Special Topics
Economics 397 (3) - Special Topics

History 132 (3) - Case Studies in Latin-American Nationalism
History 133 (3) - Survey of Brazilian History
History 330 (3) - Colonial Latin America
History 331 (3) - Latin-American Nations
History 332 (3) - The Dynamics of Political Change in Latin America

Journalism 203 (3) - State and Local Government (Politics 203 remains)
Politics 395 (3) International Relations Seminar.
Religion 280 (3) Islam

Spanish 316 (3) Modern Poetry

Revisions to Degree, Major and Program Requirements

Art (goes into effect with the 2008-09 catalog)
Approved revising the numbering scheme and labels used in the Art Department, effective with Fall 2008, and revising the requirements for a major in studio art, as follows.

- ARTS (Studio Art) and ARTH (Art History). Course will be listed together in the catalog and course numbers will typically not be duplicated between disciplines.

-  revised requirements for major in studio art.
A major in studio art leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 39 credits in art, as follows:
1.             Foundations: ARTS 121 and either ARTS 122 or 131
2.                             Exploration: Take three courses not used in requirement 1, one each from three of the following six areas.
a.             Design‑ARTS 131, 132
b.             Drawing‑ARTS 122, 221
c.             Painting‑ARTS 217
d.             Photography‑ARTS 160
e.             Printmaking‑ARTS 270, 272, 273, 274, 275, 295
f.              Sculpture‑ARTS 231
3.                             Emphasis: Take three additional courses, not used for requirements 1 or 2, from one of the following five areas. A cross‑media emphasis may be undertaken with permission of the studio‑art faculty.
a.             Drawing‑ARTS 122, 221, 222, 223
b.             Painting‑ARTS 217, 218, 317, 318, 320, 321
c.             Photography‑ARTS 160, 260, 265, 290, 360, 361
d.             Printmaking‑ARTS 270, 272, 273, 274, 275, 295
e.             Sculpture‑ARTS 231, 232, 331, 332
4.             Context: ARTH 204 and one additional course in art history
5.             Criticism: ARTS 225 or 325
6.             Culmination: ARTS 396 and ARTS 473 in the area of emphasis
HONORS: Honors Programs in art history and studio art are offered for qualified students; see department head for details.


Approved adding the following requirement to the chemistry majors leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree or Bachelor of Science degree. The cost will be borne by the department.
"4. Completion of the Major Field Test in Chemistry."

Approved the following revisions to major requirements (for 2008-09 catalog):

Chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science
"...3. Two courses chosen from Chemistry 311, 345, 347, 350, and 365."

Biochemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science
"...2. Two additional courses totaling at least four credits chosen from the following
...Chemistry 262, 311, 345 ..."

Economics (goes into effect with the 2008-09 catalog)

Approved the following revision of the economics major.
"A major in economics leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 47 credits as follows:
1. Economics 101, 102, 203, 210, 211, Interdepartmental 201, 202
2. Economics 398 and either Economics 399 or 493
3. Four additional courses in economics numbered above 211. (Note: Only three credits from supervised study abroad may be used to meet this requirement and a maximum of nine credits from special topics courses may apply toward major requirements.)
4. One course chosen from Politics 100, 105, and 111
5. Achievement in calculus at a level equivalent to Mathematics 101
6. One additional course in politics at any level or one additional course in mathematics for which Mathematics 101 is a prerequisite.
7. Grade point average: at least 2.000 in the economics credits offered for the major, and at least 2.000 in the total of all credits, from whatever department, offered for the major.

Knowledge of mathematics is vital for students planning to pursue graduate study in economics. Students headed for graduate school are urged to seek the advice of members of the economics faculty in shaping their courses of study. Majors in economics who intend to pursue a Masters in Business Administration or seek employment in the financial sector are advised to take courses in accounting. Economics majors interested in the consulting field should acquire strong computer skills and excellent writing skills, the latter through additional courses in English or journalism. Advanced study of a foreign language is essential for students interested in international career opportunities. Economics majors are encouraged to study abroad.

HONORS: An Honors Program in economics is offered for qualified students; see department head by March 1st of junior year for details.

Environmental Studies
Added the following major in environmental studies.

-           rename the environmental studies in geology major as environmental geology.
-           renumber the Environmental Studies 240 (3) - Global Environmental Governance: Law, Policy, and Economics, to Environmental Studies 381
-           establish a new major with the following requirement.

"A major in environmental studies leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 44 credits, as follows, including at least two 300-level courses. Students also undertake an experiential-learning activity.

1.         Required courses: Environmental Studies 110, 111; Economics 101, 255; Geology 260; Philosophy 108
2.         Fundamentals: Biology 111/113 and either Geology 100 or Geology 101
3.         Technology preparation: Geology 185 or Interdepartmental 201
4.         Quantitative preparation: Biology 301 or Interdepartmental 202
5.         Interdisciplinary Approaches: One course chosen from Biology 230, Environmental Studies 381, 390, and 395
6.         Systems: One course chosen from among Biology 245, Biology 246, and Geology 340
7.         Electives: Two courses in addition to those used for the above requirements and chosen from the following, one of which must be at the 300 level, or from other courses approved in advance by the head of the major:
    Biology 230, 245, 246
    Economics 381
    English 294
    Environmental Studies 381, 390, 395, 493
    Geology 141, 150, 247, 340
    History 336
    Philosophy 260
    Politics 233
    Religion 224 (Anthropology 224)
    Sociology 266
    or, when appropriate, Biology 398; Economics 385, 386; English 293, 380; Geology 376, 397; History 180
8.         Capstone: Environmental Studies 397 or 493
9.         Experience: A relevant internship, study abroad, research project, or other experiential learning activity approved in advance by the head of the major.

The environmental studies major may not be combined with a major in environmental geology."

Geology (goes into effect with the 2008-09 catalog)
Renamed the environmental studies in geology major as environmental geology.

Approved revising the geology majors as follows beginning with the 2008-09 catalog:
-               the major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree:
                "3. Additional courses must be selected from among Biology 111 and 113; Geology 108, 209, 247, 260, 275, 340, 335, 360, 373…"
-               the major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree
                "2. At least 18 additional credits in geology, including at least 12 credits numbered 200 or above, and including at least one course chosen from Geology 247, 311, 330, 350, 360.
                3. Additional courses must be selected from among Biology 105 or higher; Chemistry 111 or higher; Computer Science 111 or higher; Economics 101 and 102; Interdepartmental 202; all engineering; all geology; all mathematics; Philosophy 108; Physics 111 or higher."

 -               the major in environmental geology leading to a Bachelor of Arts
               "4. Additional courses must be selected from among Biology 105, 111, 113, 230, 240, 245, 330; Chemistry 111; Economics 101, 102, 255; Geology 146, 275, 211, 330, 335, 350, 360; Philosophy 108; politics 230, 232."

History (goes into effect with the 2008-09 catalog)
The major in history leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 39 credits in history including the following:
1. At least six credits from 100-level courses, preferably taken during the freshman or sophomore years.
2. At least 27 credits numbered 300 or above, including the following distribution of credits:
a. 15 credits numbered 300 or above in one of the following three areas of emphasis, including three credits from one of the 300-level courses designated as a seminar.
European and Russian history
American history (and, with the department head's approval, Latin American)
Global history, including Asian, African, and Latin American (and, with the department head's approval, Russian)
b. At least three credits outside the area of emphasis chosen from one of the 300-level courses designated as a seminar.
3. At least six additional credits outside the area of emphasis."

Latin American and Caribbean Studies (LACS) - new program

The Program in Latin American and Caribbean Studies is an interdisciplinary program that allows students to explore the concepts of civilization, culture, and society as applied to the region of Latin America and the Caribbean. The program's curriculum draws from a variety of disciplines - including history, literature, economics, politics, and sociology - in an effort to explore the ways the region has been shaped by the meeting of Amerindian, African, and European peoples. The program aims to teach students about the commonalities and diversity within the region. Students will consider how these factors complement or differ from North American society.

Students who complete the program can gain the background necessary for careers in teaching, bilingual education, social work, government or international organizations, business, journalism, and specialized non‑profit organizations, and/or for graduate work in Latin American Studies and related disciplines.

The Latin American and Caribbean Studies Program is not a major. Students identified by the head of the program as having completed the requirements will have a notation placed on their transcripts at graduation.

The program requires completion of at least 21 credits as follows:
1.         Introduction: Latin American and Caribbean Studies 101
2.         Distribution: 15 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from each of the three areas. Latin American and Caribbean Studies 421, 422, and 423 may count towards the total count of 15 credits. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the program director approves.
a.         Literature: Literature in Translation 253, 259; Spanish 207, 315, 317, 344, 346, 348, 350, 396; and, when appropriate, English 262, French 344, and Literature in Translation 295
b.         Humanities: History 130, 131, 180, 333, 336, 337, 366; Spanish 201, 212 ; and, when appropriate, French 280 and Spanish 295
c.         Social and Natural Sciences: Biology 216; Economics 255, 280, 381; Politics 215 and 247; Sociology 272, 334; and, when appropriate, Business 305, Economics 385, 386
3.         Capstone experience (typically after completion of other program courses): Latin American and Caribbean Studies 396

Students must complete the General Education (area 2) or Foundation and Distribution (FL) language requirement in Spanish or French. Students who wish to fulfill the requirement in Portuguese must consult the program head. Subsequently, students are strongly encouraged to pursue advanced language courses in French, Portuguese, and/or Spanish. Students should also take advantage of opportunities that will offer first‑hand knowledge of the target culture(s) through formal study abroad, internships, or individual research. Various departments, for example, periodically offer study abroad programs in Latin America, including Costa Rica, Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil. In addition to W&L and independent study abroad opportunities, the program also facilitates internship placement information.

Courses relevant to the Program in Latin American and Caribbean Studies are as follows; for course descriptions, see the appropriate departmental listings: 

Biology 216 ‑ Tropical Ecology (Ecuador)
Economics 280 ‑ Development Economics
Economics 255 ‑ Environmental Economics
Economics 381 ‑ Economics of the Environment in Developing Countries
History 130 ‑ Colonial Latin America
History 131 ‑ Modern Latin America
History 180 ‑ Disasters in the Americas (freshman seminar)
History 333 ‑ US‑Latin American Relations
History 336 ‑ Environmental History of Latin America
History 337 ‑ Revolutions in Latin America
History 366 ‑ Slavery in the Americas
Literature in Translation 253 ‑ Contemporary Spanish‑American Prose Fiction
Literature in Translation 259 ‑ French Caribbean Novel
Politics 215 ‑ International Development
Politics 247 ‑ Latin American Politics
Sociology 272 ‑ Social Revolutions
Sociology 334 (History 334) ‑ Nationalism in Latin America
Spanish 201 ‑ Supervised Study Abroad in Costa Rica
Spanish 207 ‑ Introducción a la literatura hispanoamericana
Spanish 212 ‑ Spanish‑American Civilizations and Culture
Spanish 315 ‑ Spanish‑American Short Story
Spanish 317 ‑ Spanish‑American Narrative: The Boom Generation
Spanish 344 ‑ Spanish‑American Poetry
Spanish 346 ‑ Spanish‑American Essay
Spanish 348 ‑ Spanish‑American Women Writers
Spanish 350 ‑ The Cuban Story
Spanish 396 ‑ Spanish‑American Seminar

The following courses may also meet program requirements, when the topic is appropriate.

Business 305 ‑ Seminar in International Business
Economics 385/386 ‑ Supervised Study Abroad (when Brazil or Mexico)
English 262 ‑ Literature, Race and Ethnicity
French 280 ‑ Civilisation et culture francophones
French 344 ‑ La francophonie
Interdepartmental 296 ‑ Spring Institute in Culture and Society
Literature in Translation 295 ‑ Special Topics
Spanish 295 ‑ Topics in Conversation"

Note: Limits of eight credits in ensemble courses (Music 108-116) and of nine credits for non-majors and 12 credits for majors from applied music courses (Music 141-143, 241-243, 341-343, 441-443) allowable toward a degree. Credits taken in excess of these limits will be treated as repeats of the earliest unrepeated credit of each kind.

The major requirements in politics are revised as follows:
"...2.     15 additional credits in politics, including at least three credits from each of the following fields: ...
b. Global Politics: Politics 214, 215, 221, 227, 240, 245 (Sociology 245), 246 (Sociology 246), 247, 260, 327, 355, 380, 381, 385, 392, 395..."

(for 2008-09 catalog) A major in politics leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 41 credits as follows:
...2.   15 additional credits in politics, including courses in at least two of the following three subfields and including at least one seminar courses (indicated by *):
  Political Philosophy: Politics 265, 266, 360, 370*, 396*
  Global Politics: Politics 214, 215, 221, 227, 240, 245 (Sociology 245), 246 (Sociology 246), 247, 260, 327, 355, 380*, 381, 385, 392, 395
  American Government: Politics 229, 230, 232, 233, 250, 330, 335, 340*, 342, 350 (Sociology 350), 360*, 370, 397*, 466


Policy information:     New     Deletions      Revisions     


Undergraduates taking a course at the School of Law (approved by the faculty, January 7, 2008):
Seniors may approach the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at the School of Law for permission to take one course in both the fall and winter terms (law fall and spring semesters). Only certain courses will be available, and approval must be granted by the instructor, the undergraduate faculty adviser, and law and undergraduate deans. Attendance in the class is required on the same schedule as law students, so seniors must be aware of calendar differences (e.g., course start and end dates, different holiday and examination schedules) and work load. If approved, the course will count toward a term's required full-time course load, will be graded only on a Pass/Fail basis, and will not count as credits toward either a law or undergraduate degree. See the form available on the University Registrar's web site at

Freshman Seminars
Implementation of a pilot series of freshman seminars. The definition of "seminar" will for the moment remain a "big umbrella" with the primary determinations of size (limit 15), style (discussion vs. lecture), and activities designed to engage the student actively (readings vs. rote, projects vs. tests). In the initial effort, existing freshman-level courses will retain their course numbers in order to facilitate tracking for requirements and for repeats. New courses (either topics or tailoring upper-level courses for freshmen) will have a number assigned in the 180s. Individual approvals, including general-education or foundation and distribution designations are listed above in Course Additions.




Upon matriculation, students are assigned to a class year corresponding to their anticipated graduation date (e.g. Class of 2010). Although independent from one another, this class year and students' class standing as defined below are normally the same, unless there is a change in the anticipated graduation date.

For purposes of registration, selection of courses, and listing in the catalog, the following definitions are given of undergraduate class standing. As a general guideline, students should have completed at least the number of credits noted in parentheses. The definitions apply for the purposes specified only, and do not signify full standing or the completion of University requirements.

1.         A student has freshman standing until completion of a full year of college study.

2.         A student obtains sophomore standing upon completion of a full year of college study. (25 credits)

3.         A student obtains junior standing upon completion of two full years of college study. (55 credits)

4.         A student obtains senior standing upon completion of three full years of college study. (85 credits or more)


Approved the following changes in administrative deadlines, to agree with a similar action by the Faculty Executive Committee, and applying to the following policies:
Application for Degree Credit for Off-Campus Study
Special Rules for Summer Off-Campus Study
Summer School Credit (page 86)
W&L Study Abroad Policy (page 101)

Have one consistent deadline for all transfer work - study abroad, summer, exchange, study off-campus, leave of absence, reinstatement:
"Approvals must be obtained and official transcript received by the University Registrar before the conclusion (last day of classes) of the first 12-week term completed by the student upon his/her return to W&L. Late submissions will be charged an initial fee of $100 and $50 per term beyond the deadline. Exceptions to this rule may be granted by appealing to the Faculty Executive Committee."

GRADE-POINT AVERAGE, page 80, 2007-08 Catalog

"Beginning with Fall 2009, the following calculations will be implemented for grading all undergraduate courses. For this computation, there are assigned, respectively, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0 grade points for each credit of work on which the grades A, B, C, D, E, and F are recorded. For every unit of plus, with the exception of A-plus, .33 is added; for every unit of minus, .33 is subtracted from the grade points."

GRADUATION WITH DISTINCTION, page 83, 2007-08 Catalog

"Beginning with students graduating after June 2009, the candidate for a degree with distinction must earn a grade-point average sufficient to place the student in the top 30 percent of the class, with the specific honors awarded at the following more specific percentages:

summa cum laude top 5%
magna cum laude next 10 %
cum laude next 15%,

Those students graduating after the spring Commencement each year but before the next spring Commencement ceremony (i.e., October, December, and April graduates, if any), will be awarded Latin honors based on the minimum grade-point average of each specific honor for the previous spring graduates."


All students at Washington and Lee are expected to make progress toward attaining their degrees. Their progress is judged by the quality of their academic work as measured by their grade‑point averages. Failure to make the minimum progress as defined below for undergraduate students will result in academic probation or in the students being suspended under the Automatic Rule.

Academic Probation

At the end of any term, the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement places students on academic probation for the following term for failing to meet one or both of the following class‑specific standards:

1.         if the term grade‑point average for any term falls at or below 1.000;

2.         if the cumulative grade‑point average falls below the following class standard.
  a.         For freshmen (one, two, or three terms of study), 1.500
  b.         For sophomores (four, five, or six terms of study), 1.600
  c.         For juniors (seven, eight, or nine terms of study), 1.800
  d.         For seniors (ten or more terms of study), 1.900

Students placed on academic probation are warned of their precarious position and advised to limit their participation in extracurricular activities during the period of their probation. Students whose probationary status is not removed by the end of the next term fall under the Automatic Rule.

Automatic Rule

At the end of any academic term, the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement suspends students (except freshmen at the end of their first term) who are on probation if they fail to meet either the term grade‑point average or cumulative grade‑point average standards described above. Suspension from the university severs all connections and privileges associated with being a student at Washington and Lee.

The following also fall under the Automatic Rule:

1.         Those students who have been reinstated on probation and who have failed to meet the grade‑point standard required by the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement; or

2.         Those students withdrawing from the university during any term for reasons other than medical and having a cumulative grade‑point average below 1.900; or

3.         At the end of the winter term, those students unable to remove their probationary status by attempting no more than eight credits during the spring term.

A student who has been suspended from the university under the Automatic Rule may apply for reinstatement after a minimum absence of one year (see AReinstatement@ p. 83). Such students are placed on academic probation if reinstated. Though rarely granted, a student may appeal for immediate reinstatement. Application for immediate reinstatement must be made in writing to the Associate Dean of the College, Chair of the Committee on the Automatic Rule and Reinstatement, prior to the beginning of the subsequent term in September, January, or April.

Implementation of the new 115-credit requirement
"Students who are required to accumulate at least 121 credits for completion of degree requirements must declare using a catalogue in effect while they are students and no later than the 2005-06 catalogue. Students who are required to accumulate at least 115 credits for completion of degree requirements must declare using a catalogue in effect while they are students and no earlier than the 2006-07 catalogue."

Implementation of the new foundation and distribution requirements
"Students entering W&L initially in the fall of 2007 will be required to fulfill the new foundation and distribution (general education) requirements. Students entering earlier will be held to the old requirements."

Labeling of Programs:
"Discussed the labeling of programs as non-majors, and approved removing all occurrences of the adjective "non-major" from university policies and publications."


Miscellaneous information: