WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY REGISTRATION
Changes to the 2006-2007 Catalogue and Special Announcements for Spring term 2007
(updated to )

For accurate and up-to-date information, please see "Recent Changes" and the course listing on the University Registrar's web page at http://registrar.wlu.edu/ .

by academic discipline:

Accounting Environmental studies Philosophy
African-American Studies French Physical Education
Anthropology Freshman Seminars (FS) Physics
Art  Geology Politics
Biology German Portuguese
Business Administration History Poverty & Human Capability
Chemistry Interdepartmental  Psychology
Chinese Italian Public Speaking
Classics Japanese Religion
Computer Science Journalism & Mass Communication Russian
Dance Latin Russian Area Studies
East Asian studies Lit in Translation  Sociology 
East Asian Languages & Literatures Mathematics Spanish
Economics Medieval & Renaissance Studies Theater
Education Military Science/ROTC University Scholars
Engineering Music Women's Studies
English  Neuroscience  

Accounting (ACCT)

African-American Studies (AFAM)

Anthropology (ANTH)

Anthropology 377 (3) - Field Techniques in Archaeology - advice on registration - The course is currently restricted to students who have taken an anthropology course, preferably Anthropology 101 or 205. Non-anthropology students will be added to a wait-list and may be admitted to the course as space permits. The hours listed for the course only refer to time in classroom lectures and not time spent in the field or in the Laboratory of Anthropology. The schedule for the non-classroom time will vary but will be not less than 15 hours per week. Means.

Art (ART)

Art 121 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Black and White: The foundations of drawing (Drawing I) - topical description - What makes a really great drawing? And how do we begin to learn the art of drawing? In this seminar, we focus on two aspects of great drawings. The first is an understanding and development of the basic, foundational skills of drawing and observation. These skills are accessible to anyone willing to observe closely and to practice the techniques of drawing. Using line, volume, value, space and texture, we explore the representation of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface and also the expressive potential of the marks themselves. Drawing in the studio and outside in the landscape, students become adept at using graphite, charcoal, and ink. The second aspect of great drawings is more elusive but arguably more important. How do we understand the drawn image? Together we examine, analyze, and discuss the graphic works of a number of artists, contemporary and traditional, such as Vincent Van Gogh, Willem DeKooning, Andrew Wyeth, Larry Rivers. and Richard Diebenkorn. What is the artist trying to say? How does the content and process by which the drawing was produced convey the intent of the artist? By the end of the term, students will have learned the language of drawing and will have practiced the skills of both the eye and the hand. (GE4a) Beavers.

Art 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Silk Road: Connecting East and West - topical description - As American as apple pie or fireworks on the Fourth of July? Think again. Much that we hold to be typically Western, in fact has its origins in Asia. Fireworks originated in China, and apples are believed to have come from the Caucasus. At the heart of this course is the Silk Road, a European term for the network of trade routes that brought silk, among other commodities such gunpowder, paper, porcelain and pasta, from Asia to the West, beginning more than 2,000 years ago. The Silk Road was always about a lot more than silk, however. This seminar will explore the various ways that the Silk Road, by camel caravan across central Asia and, later, by sailing ship using new maritime routes, facilitated exchanges of commodities and technologies, arts and ideas between China and the rest of the world for over two thousand years. We have been used to thinking of Asia in terms of its Westernization in the course of the last century. Examining new material, and some familiar material from new points of view, introduces a shift—from the Eurocentric perspective that underlies the worldview of most Americans—to a more global perspective on the world. Whatever your point of departure—whether an interest in economics and commerce, music or art, the worlds of ancient Rome or pre-modern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, or Buddhism and India, or China and, ultimately, Japan—this is a course that should pique your interest and broaden your horizons.(GE4a) O'Mara.

Art 270 (3) ­ Introduction to the Artist's Book - newly scheduled course - A creative exploration of the tradition of the handmade artist's book. Students learn to make several styles of binding, including accordion books, pop‑ups, pamphlets, and Japanese bindings. They develop some skill in letterpress printing and work with sequential design, creative writing, and simple printmaking and photo transfer techniques to create original handmade books. Some readings, discussions, and slide lectures introduce students to the ingenious and varied history of the artist's book. Besides constructing imaginative individual book art projects, students create one collaborative project. (HU, GE4a) Ryan.

Art 380A (3) and University Scholars 202 (3) - Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Paintings - topical description - No prerequisites. Permission of the instructor required. The two courses are corequisites of each other. This six-credit, study-abroad experience develops students' fundamental understanding of certain physical, chemical, biological, and geological concepts and utilizes that vocabulary and knowledge to discuss 17th-century Dutch Art. The first half of the course involving the scientific and technical background takes place in Lexington; the second half, involving the art history, politics, religion, economics, etc., meets at the Center for European Studies (CES) Universiteit Maastricht and includes trips to museums, cathedrals, and other sites in Amsterdam, The Hague, Delft, Haarlem, and Rotterdam. The emphasis is on key aspects of optics, light, and chemical bonding needed to understand how a painting "works" and how art conservators analyze paintings in terms of conservation and authenticity using various scientific techniques (radiography, microscopy, spectroscopy, chromatography, etc.). When possible, the course develops modern notions of science with those of the 17th century in order to see how science influenced art. Students are graded, in the first half, on three or four tests; in the second half two research projects involving one paper and two Powerpoint presentations are the basis for grades. Though the working language at CES Maastricht is English, students learn key phrases in Dutch and practice the manners and customs of The Netherlands. (GE4a and GE5c) Uffelman.

Art 380B (3) - Art History Seminar: Arts of Africa - topical description - This seminar surveys the arts of African cultures, predominantly from the western and central regions of the continent, from past and present. We look at architecture, sculpture, painting, textiles, ceramics, metals, and body arts, with a specific focus on the relationship between art and ritual. Taking a thematic approach, we examine varying aspects of African religion, politics, and culture, including: personal adornment, art and leadership, shrines and altars, masquerades, rites of passage, cycles and circles, tradition and today’s global culture. Other issues discussed include the terminology that has surrounded the study of African art, and the display of African objects in the museum context. (GE4a) Morse.

Biology (BIOL)

Biology 230 (4) - Field Biogeography and Species Conservation - newly scheduled course - Prerequisites: Biology 111 and 113 or permission of the instructor. Corequisite: English 294. Students should register only for these two courses during spring term. This course emphasizes the patterns of diversity encountered during visits to different regional plant communities where we use professional floristic works to identify vascular plants. In addition, evolutionary and ecological explanations for patterns of distribution and extinction, and the lessons these teach for conservation, are explored. (GE5a) Knox. Spring

Biology 231 (6) - Field Entomology - Prerequisite: Biology 111/113. Insects are the most diverse of living organisms, and they have the lifestyle to prove it. We focus on the behavior, ecology, and physiology of insects and spiders through original research projects and field trips. We also examine current threats to biodiversity of this group of organisms. No other course may be taken concurrently. No more than five credits may be counted toward the major in biology. Laboratory course. Kraus

Biology 396 (3) Special Topics in Cellular & Molecular Biology: Virology - topical description - Prerequisite: Biology 220 or Chemistry 342. This upper-level course focuses on the structure, genetics. and pathogenesis of eukaryotic viruses, with emphasis on viruses causing human disease. Simurda

Biology 397 (3) - Topics in Neuroendocrinology - topical description - Students may not also take Neuroscience 395. Prerequisites: Biology 220, junior standing and permission of the instructor. The study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, with special reference to regulation and communication in the mammal. This term's topic begins with some of the classical papers that are the foundations of this field. We then focus on current research in the neuroendocrinology of pregnancy, parturition, lactation, and maternal behavior. Gibber

Business Administration (BUS)

Business Administration 195A (3) - Art in Business - topical description - This course is an investigation of the multiple roles that art and design play in the business world, covering all key areas of marketing communications. Among topics studied are the art and design elements of the logo; branding, packaging, and advertising; and the retail arena. Attention is focused on monetary allocations for the various methods of design and advertising; selected case studies; and aesthetic and psychological issues, past and present. MacDonald

Business Administration 195B (3) - Puzzles and Critical Thought - topical description - No prerequisite. Limited to freshmen. Although listed as a Business course, the course material is decidedly non-disciplinary. Students consider a series of puzzles, ranging from brain teasers to enigmatic real-world situations, in an effort to learn basic principles of critical thought. How do great critical thinkers solve problems? Can we become better critical thinkers by simply applying techniques used by those great critical thinkers? Put simply, we focus not on thinking outside the box but rather on making the box bigger. Hoover

Business Administration 302 (3) - Seminar in Finance: Financial Derivatives - topical description - Prerequisites: Business Administration 221; Interdepartmental 202 (or equivalent); and Mathematics 101 (or equivalent). This class provides students with an introduction to financial derivatives. Financial derivatives are assets which derive their value from other assets. Options, futures, and swaps are examples of derivatives. The class outlines the characteristics of these instruments and their application to risk management. Schwartz

Business Administration 304 (3) - Business, Government, and Society - topical description - This course explores the relationship between the corporation and its environment.  A firm operates within and interacts with the social, technological, political, legal, economic, and physical environments.  We explore and examine critically the role of the firm with respect to these surroundings from a historical and contemporary perspective. This course introduces students to the issues that have challenged and continue to challenge corporations as a result of their interaction with their surroundings.  Reiter.

Chemistry (CHEM)

Chemistry 175 (3) - Developing Outreach Activities for Local Schools - newly scheduled course - Prerequisite: Chemistry 100, Chemistry 106, or Chemistry 111. This spring term service‑learning course teaches the development of hands‑on laboratory activities to fulfill physical science goals required by the Science Standards of Learning for Virginia's Public Schools. Students create instructional science experiments for chosen age levels to explore, and implement activities with school children in Lexington City and Rockbridge County School classrooms. Students visit at least two different classrooms. Primarily a laboratory course. LaRiviere.

Chemistry 295 (1) - Special Topics: Metabolic Diseases.- topical description - Prerequisite: Chemistry 341 or Biology 215. Seminar course. Each student chooses a metabolic disease to research and present to the class in a PowerPoint presentation. The presentation and subsequent paper must include an extensive explanation of the problem, its physiological consequences, how the two are related (genetics, if known), and treatments (if available). The final grade is determined by the quality of the presentation and the paper, as well as by class attendance. Alty.

Chinese (CHIN)

Chinese 100 (6) - Supervised Study Abroad: Beginning Chinese - newly scheduled course - Prerequisite: Permission of the department and approval of the International Education Committee. This course is designed to introduce Chinese language and culture to students with little or no previous Chinese language background and prepare them for studying first-year Chinese. Combining language study with studies of other aspects of Chinese culture (literature, art, history, economy, etc.) provides students with first‑hand experience of the development of contemporary China. Classes and discussions are held at the International College of Chinese Studies at East China Normal University in Shanghai. The program includes field trips to points of historical interests and many cultural activities. Students learn through personal experience about the emergence of modern China and its changing culture. Fu.

Chinese 101 (3) - Exploring Chinese Language and Culture - newly scheduled course - This course is an introduction to Chinese language and culture. Students learn elementary oral and written Chinese and also about the evolution of the Chinese language. Slides, media presentations and film clips are used to demonstrate the impact the language has had on the culture and their interactions in contemporary Chinese society. This course is not a prerequisite for Chinese 111, nor does it allow a student to move to a language course numbered higher than Chinese 111 without permission of the instructor. Lin.

Chinese 115 (6) - Supervised Study Abroad: First‑Year Chinese - newly scheduled course - Prerequisite: Chinese 112, permission of the department, and approval of the International Education Committee. This course is designed to improve active oral proficiency in Chinese, to introduce various aspects of Chinese culture, and to prepare students for studying second‑year Chinese. Classes and discussions are held at the International College of Chinese Studies at East China Normal University in Shanghai. Students have opportunities to mingle with ordinary Chinese people, to engage in everyday conversation, and to have first‑hand experience of the development of contemporary China. The program includes field trips to points of historical interests and many cultural activities. Fu.

Chinese 265 (6) - Supervised Study Abroad: Second‑Year Chinese - newly scheduled course - Prerequisite: Chinese 261 or 262, permission of the department, and approval of the International Education Committee. This course is designed to further improve student oral proficiency in Chinese, to introduce various aspects of Chinese culture, and to prepare students for or studying third‑year Chinese. Classes and discussions are held at the International College of Chinese Studies at East China Normal University in Shanghai. Students discuss and debate with Chinese students about emerging social, economic, and policy issues. The program includes field trips to points of historical interests and many cultural activities. Fu.

Classics (CLAS)

Classics 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Moral World of Antiquity - Cancelled

Classics 204 (Literature in Translation 204) (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Augustan Rome - topical description -  Through readings and discussion, we examine the Roman world during the lifetime of Octavian, known to us as the emperor Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.). This period was pivotal in the shaping of what became the Roman Empire, and, consequently, in the shaping of Western Europe. The great innovations and achievements of the Augustan period have left an indelible mark on every aspect of subsequent western life, including literature, art, architecture, legal institutions, religions, philosophy, political propaganda, etc. We approach our study of this period by reading a selection of historical sources, including Plutarch and Suetonius, then a representative selection of the most influential poetry of the period, including Virgil’s Aeneid and Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and finally, by surveying art, architecture, and religious practice. We always draw on and connect evidence of various kinds in order to illustrate the use of an interdisciplinary approach in studying an ancient society. Where possible, we concentrate on ancient sources, since our aim will not be so much to learn what modern authors have said in summarizing this period, as much as to use the ancient evidence to resurrect its complexity. (GE3) Carlisle

Classics 295 (3) - Topics in Classics: Athens in Crisis, 431‑404 BC - topical description - In this course, we consider the literature of the late 5th century Athens in as full a perspective as possible, and in particular, we explore the mutual commentary on one another by the rich rhetorical, philosophical, and dramatic literature of the period. Not only do we read Sophocles and Euripides, but we see them lampooned by Aristophanes and hear them quoted by Socrates. Not only do we read Thucydides on Alcibiades, but we see him stumbling into a party with Socrates and hear him abused in a speech written by the orator Lysias against his son. Thus, various pieces of this period are brought together in the effort to give the fullest picture of literature and life in late 5th century Athens. (GE3) Tracy

Computer Science (CSCI)

Computer Science 250 (3) - Introduction to Robotics - newly scheduled course -Prerequisite: Computer Science 111 or 121 or permission of instructor. This course combines readings from the contemporary robotics literature with hands‑on lab experience building robots with the popular Lego Mindstorms toolkit (provided). The lab experience culminates with a peer‑judged competition of robot projects proposed and built during the second half of the course. (GE5c) Levy. Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

Computer Science 295 (1) - C++ Programming - topical description - Corequisite: Computer Science 320. Provides an introduction to the C and C++ programming languages. Knowledge of Java or Python is assumed. Primary emphasis is on the concepts and structures needed for parallel computing. Necaise

Dance (DANC)

Dance 110 (1) - University Dance - Canceled

Dance 292 (2) - Applied Ballet - newly scheduled course - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. This studio course is devoted to the practice of classical ballet technique and to the exploration of classical and contemporary ballet in performance. The course culminates in a performance presentation. This course may be repeated for degree credit with permission. Staff. Fall, Winter, Spring

East Asian Languages and Literatures (EALL)

East Asian Studies (EAS)

Economics (ECON)

Economics 296A (3) - Economics of the Middle East - topical description - Prerequisites: Economics 101, 102 and sophomore standing. This course is the study of several topics related to the economies of Middle Eastern countries. Topics include but are not limited to the economic history of the region, economic growth, the oil industry and OPEC (The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), Dutch disease, population and globalization. With focus on selected countries, the tools of economic analysis are applied to provide insight into the problems of the region. Students write a research paper on a topic and a country of their choice related to the course theme. Ghandi 

Economics 296B (3) - Economics of the European Union - topical description - Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. The objective of this course is to apply the knowledge obtained in core economics courses to the real world issues regarding European Union (EU). Topics include a brief overview of the EU, Monetary Union and European Central Bank, Labor Market, Unemployment and Growth effects: single country vs. union, Enlargement and potential candidates. Discussions will be guided by related articles from sources such as Wall Street Journal and Economist. Selcuk 

Economics 297A (3) - The Economics of Race and Ethnicity - topical description - Prerequisite: Economics 101. The purpose of this seminar is to enhance understanding of the link between race and ethnicity, and economic outcomes. Seminar participants will explore a number of topics through assigned reading and classroom discussion. Topics to be examined include; what are race and ethnicity, economic theories of the discrimination, social-psychological insight about stereotyping, legacy impacts on social-economic status, affirmative action, wealth disparities between racial/ethnic groups, the role of communities in shaping economic and social well-being, concepts of identity, the connection between skin shade and economic outcomes, the contribution of assimilation and English language proficiency to the economic outcomes of immigrant Latino workers, the racial/ethnic composition of schools and academic achievement. The course will foster the development and use of critical thinking, effective writing, and oral presentation skills. Student evaluation will be based on classroom participation, an examination of concepts discussed, and a paper project. Goldsmith.  

Economics 297B (3) - Population Economics - topical description - Shafiq.  

Economics 297C (3) - Political Economics - topical description - Prerequisites: Economics 101 and 102. An introduction to the economic approach to politics, covering a wide range of topics, including the median voter hypothesis, Arrow's impossibility theorem, "logrolling," the theory of bureaucracy, the separation of powers and the scope of judicial discretion, civil liberties and constitutional constraints, economic theories of dictatorship, and war and peace. Smythe

Economics 396 (3) - Health Economics for Developing Countries - topical description - Prerequisite: Economics 203. A survey of the major issues of health economics, with a focus on the experiences of developing countries. Health structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited health performance. Health goals and policy alternatives. An examination of the role of econometrics in the evaluation of health programs is a major part of the course, including review of instrumental variables and matching methods. Selected case studies. Blunch.

Economics 397 (3) - Central Banking - topical description - Prerequisites. Economics 360 and permission of the instructor. This seminar explores the theory, institutions, and history of central banks. It is a reading- and research-intensive course designed to give the student a deep knowledge of theoretical and current issues facing central banks. Readings include classic theoretical studies of central banks by economists such as Bagehot and Friedman and Schwartz, as well as modern studies such as Leijonhufvud, Goodhart, and Eichengreen. Each student chooses additional readings from the area of theory, history, institutions, or people related to central banking. Grades are determined by participation, two exams, and a research project. The project involves individually chosen readings, a paper, and a presentation/discussion for the class. Hooks.

Education (EDUC)

Engineering (ENGN)

English (ENGL)

English 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar:  Laughing at Love: Shakespeare's Comedies - topical description - Shakespeare’s romantic comedies of love, sex, and marriage capture the folly, despair, and promise of young love and provide a much-needed counterpoint to the bleak depiction of doomed relationships in his great tragedies. No other dramatic comedies ever written provide quite the stimulating combination of so much to laugh about and so much to think about. In the seminar, we study six plays: The Taming of the Shrew, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, The Merchant of Venice, and The Tempest. Each week, we do an intensive examination of one play including close reading of the text, comparisons to other plays or sources, and (with the help of The Bedford Companion to Shakespeare) additional reading about romance, politics, family life, and the status of women in the Elizabethan period. Although Shakespeare’s play reward intensive study on the page, we always keep in mind that these plays were intended for the stage. The seminar includes a visit to the Blackfriars Playhouse in Staunton for a performance of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and doing our own scene studies. Written work includes an active electronic discussion on Blackboard, a single one-page paper to share with the class, one short paper, and one longer final paper. (GE3) Dobin.

English 233 (3) - Film An introductory study of film - topical description - This course introduces the history, theory, and terminology of film via a focus on the genre of Romantic Comedy. The films fall into three groupings: first, several 1930s screwball comedies including Bringing Up Baby, The Awful Truth, His Girl Friday, and It Happened One Night; second, a series of 1980s and '90s films involving operas, such as Moonstruck, Pretty Woman, La Traviata, and Baz Luhrmann's Moulin Rouge and La Boheme; and, third, some films illustrating issues surrounding remakes and adaptations, such as The Shop Around the Corner, You've Got Mail, and one or two from the spate of recent Jane Austen adaptations. (GE3) Adams.

English 262 (3) - Life's Not a Beach: Caribbean and Caribbean-American Perspectives in Prose - topical description - In this course we read works of 20th-Century Caribbean and Caribbean-American literature by writers such as Opal Palmer Adisa, Jamaica Kincaid, Paule Marshall, Samuel Selvon, Edwidge Danticat, Junot Diaz, and VS Naipaul. We also view two films which develop central themes of the literature. Class discussions focus on the production of racial, religious, and linguistic identity associated with colonization, enslavement, and immigration and explore depictions of race, religion, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality. Other topics of interest include: (1) contemporary representations of the Caribbean as a tourist destination, and (2) what you bring to class as a participant. This class includes two formal and several informal writing assignments, a midterm, and a final exam. (GE3) Solomon.

English 294 (3) - Topics in Environmental Literature - topical description - Corequisite: Biology 230. Students should register only for these two courses during spring term. This course focuses on three environmental writers from the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. First, we read Charles Darwin's The Voyage of the Beagle, his 1845 account of the five-year circumnavigation of the planet that took him to the Galapagos Islands and initiated his thinking about species and speciation. Second, we read Aldo Leopold's A Sand County Almanac, a fundamental text in environmental ethics and conservation biology. Third, we read a selection of essays and short stories by Barry Lopez, Vintage Lopez, which will coincide with Mr. Lopez's visit to campus. (GE3) Warren.

English 299 (3) - Seminar for Prospective Majors: The Damned: Hell from Virgil to Milton - topical description - Epic poetry always includes a descent to the underworld, that eerie place inhabited by the dead where the only respite from suffering is won by telling living visitors personal stories of tragedy, crime, and loss. For the living, this underworld, or hell, becomes a fearful site of revelation; it unveils the experience of death and it also foretells some part of the future. This course explores the changing conception of hell as it is imagined in Virgil's Aeneid, Dante's Inferno, and Milton's Paradise Lost. Though the classical, medieval, and Puritan understandings of hell differ markedly from one another, a rich basis of comparison is possible through the study of how hell is represented within epic literary form. Among other topics, we study the role of the underworld within epic narrative structure; the meaning of suffering, eternity, and punishment within Classical and Christian cultures; and the function of hell—as confine or trap, as a space where justice is served, as a site for remembering the past, or as last haunt of the exiled, banished, and forgotten.(GE3)  Gertz.

English 354 (3) - Contemporary British and American Drama - revised description - This course examines both the masterpieces and undiscovered gems of English language theater from Samuel Beckett to the present. The course investigates contemporary movements away from naturalism and realism towards the fantastical, surreal, and spectacular. Student presentations, film screenings, and brief performance exercises supplement literary analysis of the plays, though no prior drama experience is presumed. (HL, GE3) Pickett.

English 380A (3) - Advanced Seminar: Environmental Rhetoric - topical description - Open to non-majors and underclass students. Fulfills the humanities requirement for the Program in Environmental Studies. A study of strategies of persuasion used in selected environmental debates, and the problem of conflicting world views within which these strategies make sense. Students read and watch several classic works of environmental rhetoric, including Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, Aldo Leopold's A Sand County Almanac, the film Erin Brockovich, and Terry Tempest Williams' Refuge, plus some essays, news reports, web sites, and government documents, studying how these works attempt to persuade and how successful they have been. They also write short analytical papers and work on a big project that advances a particular agenda of their own choosing. The goal of the course is to prepare students for the writing they may do later in life regarding the environment both at work and in their personal lives. We consider language as a lens through which we see the natural and human world, and what we can do as a result to clarify our own perceptions and to influence others to create the kind of community, nation, and world we want this to be. (GE3) Smout.

English 380B (3) - Advanced Seminar: Romancing the Archive: Research Quests and Scholar-Adventurers - topical description - May be used for either American or later British distribution for majors. To be a literary scholar has been a deadly assignment for a fictional character since George Eliot's Casaubon wasted his life in futile research, blighting the existence of Dorothea Brooke, and failing to produce A Key to All Mythologies. In the mainstream realist tradition, too close an acquaintance with mouldering books, indices, monographs, bibliographies, slips of paper, and footnotes denotes inflexibility, lack of imagination, petty-mindedness, infirmity, and impotence. Romancers depict antiquarians and researchers rather more favorably, but even Walter Scott rarely lingers on the archival frame he creates to surround his historical adventures. Spies, detectives, and the fugitives in romances of pursuit can pause to examine collections of papers only so long as more exciting and violent activities follow without delay. Oddly enough, a scholarly habit of mind and an aptitude for interpreting texts has become an attractive trait of fictional characters in contemporary fiction. This seminar investigates the traits of the fictional scholar-adventurer and studies the quests for Truth that drive romances of the archive. (GE3) Keen.

English 380C (3) - Advanced Seminar: Fantasies of Untamed Nature - topical description - We explore how untamed nature is related to the "civilized" world by imaginative writers from the Anglo-Saxons to early Renaissance writers and, then, by writers of the last 25 years. In medieval literature (folk epic, ballad, romance, travel literature, and Reynard the Fox satire), wild nature becomes a place of testing, a mirror of an individual's madness and a culture's mindless violence, a threat to safety, a haunt of unrestrained desire, and the trysting place for lovers. (All Anglo-Saxon and Middle English works are read in translation, as, of course, are French, Arabic, and Jewish works.) Recent writers (A. S. Byatt, Kingsley Amis, Alice Thomas Ellis) resurrect medieval stories of dragons, trolls, faerie kings, and the Green Man to represent what wild nature really is, as opposed to what romantics and New Agers make of it: transient, parasitic, and violent, but also a refuge for humans who are suffering the loss of those they love. (GE3) Craun.

English 380D (3) - Advanced Seminar: Writing the Memoir - topical description - Prerequisite: Instructor's permission required; contact Dr. Deborah Miranda at mirandad@wlu.edu. Flannery O'Connor once said that any writer who could survive childhood had enough material to write about for a lifetime. Memoir is a mosaic form, utilizing bits and pieces from autobiography, fiction, essay and poetry in ways that allow the author to muse (speculate, imagine, remember and question) on their own life experiences. Modern literary memoir requires tremendous work from the author, as she moves both backward and forward in time, re-creates believable dialogue, switches back and forth between scene and summary, and controls the pace and tension of the story with lyricism or brute imagery. In short, the memoirist keeps her reader engaged by being an adept and agile storyteller. This is not straight autobiography. Memoir is more about what can be gleaned from a section of one's life than about the outcome of the life as a whole. We read from the anthology Modern American Memoirs (ed. by Cort and Dillard) as well as excerpts from Linda Hogan, Dorothy Allison, Augusten Burroughs, David Sedaris, Chelsea Cain. (GE3) Miranda.

English 380E (3) - Advanced Seminar: Irish Poetry - topical description - This course focuses on the development of the rich traditions of Irish poetry, paying attention both to major historical themes and specific poets, including three weeks study of the Irish language and Irish mythology. Major figures include Yeats, Gregory, Synge, Heaney, and Kavanagh. Throughout we attend to the relations between place and poetry. (GE3) Conner.

Environmental Studies (ENV)

Environmental Studies 395 (3) - Ethics of Conservation - topical description - An examination of the conflicts and confluence of human welfare and the preservation of the earth’s remaining biological diversity. Cooper and Hurd.

Environmental Studies 402 (2) - Place, Justice, and Ecology in North America - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of Professor Jim Warren, English Department Head. This course meets during a two-week period only, May 7-18, under the leadership of visiting professor Barry Lopez. During the first week, we read Rian Malan’s My Traitor’s Heart, introducing themes of social justice and ethics, colonialism, multiculturalism, and related topics. During the second week, we read Tim Flannery’s The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of North America. We develop ideas about personal responsibility and action, and then focus on who we are and what our responsibilities might be, given our place and history as a country. During the third week, 21-25 May, students will meet with Professor Warren to determine topics for a final paper of 10 pages. Lopez and Warren.

French (FREN)

French 274 (3) - Cinéma français et francophone: 1980-2000 - topical description - Prerequisite: French 261 or equivalent or permission of instructor. An introduction to the study of film in French. Students familiarize themselves with the vocabulary and analytical tools necessary to analyze, discuss films and write about them. This course shows how film language has evolved since the New Wave of the 1960s through the critical study of selected films, representative of some of the major trends of the French and Francophone cinema production of the 1980-2000 period. Viewings, presentations, discussions, and papers in French for development of communication skills. (GE3) Frégnac-Clave.

French 342 (3)- La France moderne - topical description - The course offers an interdisciplinary exploration of French and Francophone avant-garde, modern, and contemporary theater, from Alfred Jarry to Eugene Ionesco to Fernando Arrabal to Madeleine Chapsal, to Matei Visniec. A significant component of the course consists of the full-fledged production of a show in French, presented at the Lenfest Center during the last week of the term. No theater experience required or necessary. Radulescu.
 

Freshman Seminars (various disciplines, title has FS:)

Art 121 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Black and White: The foundations of drawing (Drawing I) - topical description - What makes a really great drawing? And how do we begin to learn the art of drawing? In this seminar, we focus on two aspects of great drawings. The first is an understanding and development of the basic, foundational skills of drawing and observation. These skills are accessible to anyone willing to observe closely and to practice the techniques of drawing. Using line, volume, value, space and texture, we explore the representation of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface and also the expressive potential of the marks themselves. Drawing in the studio and outside in the landscape, students become adept at using graphite, charcoal, and ink. The second aspect of great drawings is more elusive but arguably more important. How do we understand the drawn image? Together we examine, analyze, and discuss the graphic works of a number of artists, contemporary and traditional, such as Vincent Van Gogh, Willem DeKooning, Andrew Wyeth, Larry Rivers. and Richard Diebenkorn. What is the artist trying to say? How does the content and process by which the drawing was produced convey the intent of the artist? By the end of the term, students will have learned the language of drawing and will have practiced the skills of both the eye and the hand. (GE4a) Beavers.

Art 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Silk Road: Connecting East and West - topical description - As American as apple pie or fireworks on the Fourth of July? Think again. Much that we hold to be typically Western, in fact has its origins in Asia. Fireworks originated in China, and apples are believed to have come from the Caucasus. At the heart of this course is the Silk Road, a European term for the network of trade routes that brought silk, among other commodities such gunpowder, paper, porcelain and pasta, from Asia to the West, beginning more than 2,000 years ago. The Silk Road was always about a lot more than silk, however. This seminar will explore the various ways that the Silk Road, by camel caravan across central Asia and, later, by sailing ship using new maritime routes, facilitated exchanges of commodities and technologies, arts and ideas between China and the rest of the world for over two thousand years. We have been used to thinking of Asia in terms of its Westernization in the course of the last century. Examining new material, and some familiar material from new points of view, introduces a shift—from the Eurocentric perspective that underlies the worldview of most Americans—to a more global perspective on the world. Whatever your point of departure—whether an interest in economics and commerce, music or art, the worlds of ancient Rome or pre-modern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, or Buddhism and India, or China and, ultimately, Japan—this is a course that should pique your interest and broaden your horizons.(GE4a) O'Mara.

Classics 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Moral World of Antiquity - Cancelled

Classics 204 (Literature in Translation 204) (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Augustan Rome - topical description -  Through readings and discussion, we examine the Roman world during the lifetime of Octavian, known to us as the emperor Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.). This period was pivotal in the shaping of what became the Roman Empire, and, consequently, in the shaping of Western Europe. The great innovations and achievements of the Augustan period have left an indelible mark on every aspect of subsequent western life, including literature, art, architecture, legal institutions, religions, philosophy, political propaganda, etc. We approach our study of this period by reading a selection of historical sources, including Plutarch and Suetonius, then a representative selection of the most influential poetry of the period, including Virgil’s Aeneid and Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and finally, by surveying art, architecture, and religious practice. We always draw on and connect evidence of various kinds in order to illustrate the use of an interdisciplinary approach in studying an ancient society. Where possible, we concentrate on ancient sources, since our aim will not be so much to learn what modern authors have said in summarizing this period, as much as to use the ancient evidence to resurrect its complexity. (GE3) Carlisle.

English 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Laughing at Love: Shakespeare's Comedies - topical description - Shakespeare’s romantic comedies of love, sex, and marriage capture the folly, despair, and promise of young love and provide a much-needed counterpoint to the bleak depiction of doomed relationships in his great tragedies. No other dramatic comedies ever written provide quite the stimulating combination of so much to laugh about and so much to think about. In the seminar, we study six plays: The Taming of the Shrew, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, The Merchant of Venice, and The Tempest. Each week, we do an intensive examination of one play including close reading of the text, comparisons to other plays or sources, and (with the help of The Bedford Companion to Shakespeare) additional reading about romance, politics, family life, and the status of women in the Elizabethan period. Although Shakespeare’s play reward intensive study on the page, we always keep in mind that these plays were intended for the stage. The seminar includes a visit to the Blackfriars Playhouse in Staunton for a performance of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and doing our own scene studies. Written work includes an active electronic discussion on Blackboard, a single one-page paper to share with the class, one short paper, and one longer final paper. (GE3) Dobin.

Geology 100 (4) -  Freshman Seminar: General Geology with Field Emphasis - topical description -  Not open to those who have completed Geology 100 or 101. Washington and Lee is surrounded by some of the most interesting and classical geology of the entire Appalachian Mountain system. The campus lies right in the middle of the Great Valley of Virginia, within easy reach of the Blue Ridge Province and the Allegheny Mountains. This courses takes advantage of our superb location, traveling to a new field site for each class meeting (including Goshen Pass, North Mountain, Devil's Marbleyard, Panther Falls, Island Ford Cave, and the Blue Ridge Mountains). We conduct a “hands-on” study of the basic principles of geology while unraveling the geologic history of the area. During the term, the class convenes for three four-hour class blocks each week to promote class discussions and to undertake laboratory and field-based investigations using maps, rocks and minerals, computational techniques, scientific writing and poster presentations. This course is appropriate for those students curious about their natural world who enjoy spending time outdoors. Laboratory course credit. (GE5a) Knapp.

History 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Natural Disasters in the Americas - topical description - This seminar examines the history of natural disasters in Latin America and the United States. But why study disasters? First, natural disasters literally open up societies, allowing us to peer into areas and worlds that we might not see in day-to-day life. Just as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 brought us into homes and communities that we don’t normally encounter, the Lima earthquake of 1746 takes us into the residences and even the bedrooms of the rich and poor—areas that historical records usually neglect. Second, natural disasters don’t just open up physical places; they also illuminate spiritual and mental worlds, offering a window on how people viewed life and death, and how they understood religion, nature, science, and technology. Lastly, disasters transformed both physical and mental worlds. They shaped urban planning, agriculture, and the economy, and even made regimes totter or retrench. Disaster studies thus generate several questions that we tackle in this course: Are disasters “natural” or human-induced? How have disasters—and reactions to them—changed over time? Are there differences in reactions to disasters in Latin America and the United States? What are the social and political forces that push people to live in dangerous places? How have different generations of writers, filmmakers, and the media presented disasters? As a seminar, this course emphasizes intensive readings and several short papers to foster lively discussion about hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, climate, fire, and volcanoes in the history of the Americas. Additionally, students research the historical contexts, and then share their work with the class, of the most recent and most raw natural disaster in the Americas—Hurricane Katrina. (GE4b) Carey.

Journalism 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Religion, Culture, and the Global Media - topical description - The sex-abuse scandals in the Roman Catholic Church, the consecration of a gay bishop in an Episcopal diocese, the Ten Commandments monument in the Alabama Supreme Court building, the protests over the cartoon drawing of the Prophet Mohammed, controversies over stem-cell research and evolution, English-language broadcasts of Al Jazeera, and struggles over the constitutionality of "faith-based initiatives"—these are only the latest ways that religion has emerged into public debate. And that debate is conducted through the media—the primary location of local, national, and global discourse. Values, symbols and ideas—whether religious, social, political, or cultural—are shaped and shared through the words and images of the media. The goal of this course is to understand the role of the global media as guarantors of public discourse, in supporting, questioning, negating, or shaping the place of religion in public discourse. This course provides students with an overview of global mass media (both entertainment and news) as cultural institutions that use and are used by other cultural institutions, such as religion, in their efforts to adjust to the processes of globalization. We investigate the role of the global media in addressing the issues of religious pluralism, multiculturalism, and citizenship. We focus on the impact of old and new technologies of communication—including rock videos, political rhetoric, books, films, and the Internet—on the ability of the institutions of religion to influence and mobilize geographically isolated groups. As we explore the ways in which the global media compete as mythmakers with traditional institutions, we are better able to understand the increasingly global and multidimensional relationships between the institutions of media and religion.(GE4 as credit but not for one of the areas) Abah.

Music 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Human Voice: Science and Sound - topical description -  This seminar is designed to explore the entirety of the human voice. Through readings, demonstrations, experimental methods, guest lectures, and class discussions, we explore the physiologic and acoustical properties of the voice. Our internal study reveals the anatomy, physiology, and physics that serve to operate this natural instrument. Our external study includes analyses of acoustics, resonance, and voice types through the recorded voice of famous classical and contemporary singers, live performances by guest artists in the Wilson Concert Hall, and private spectrograph analysis of each student’s speaking or singing voice. Readings that feature conflicting viewpoints spur class discussions, individual research topics, and issues for group presentations. This exploration of the human voice is designed especially for those interested in public speaking, pre-medical studies, physics, or singing. This course is open to all freshmen; no class member is required to sing.(GE4a) Myers.

Philosophy 195A (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Concept of Honor for Freshmen - topical description -  What is honor? It lies at the heart of Washington and Lee's values, yet its hold on the wider American society is tenuous, and its meaning may seem unclear to many, not least to students struggling to comprehend a revered honor system. This course seeks to explore the concept of personal honor in historical and philosophical context. We examine some key moments in this concept's development from ancient Greece to our own times, exploring a variety of philosophical perplexities along the way. We read literary texts such as the Iliad, Gawain and the Green Knight, and To Kill a Mockingbird, and view a variety of films, from The Good Shepherd and Troy to The Adventures of Robin Hood and Glory--each of which casts different lights on honor. In the last week of the course, we focus on Washington and Lee's own honor system, in order to clarify and deepen our own sense of local personal honor. Students learn from lectures by invited speakers and centrally participate in seminar discussion on the texts and films and the issues they raise. The course's central philosophical question is this: how can honor, born and reared in hierarchical, patriarchal, warrior societies, live or even thrive in a more egalitarian and peaceful home, such as Washington and Lee in the 21st Century? (GE4c) Sessions.

Geology (GEOL)

Geology 100 (4) -  Freshman Seminar: General Geology with Field Emphasis - topical description -  Not open to those who have completed Geology 100 or 101. Washington and Lee is surrounded by some of the most interesting and classical geology of the entire Appalachian Mountain system. The campus lies right in the middle of the Great Valley of Virginia, within easy reach of the Blue Ridge Province and the Allegheny Mountains. This courses takes advantage of our superb location, traveling to a new field site for each class meeting (including Goshen Pass, North Mountain, Devil's Marbleyard, Panther Falls, Island Ford Cave, and the Blue Ridge Mountains). We conduct a “hands-on” study of the basic principles of geology while unraveling the geologic history of the area. During the term, the class convenes for three four-hour class blocks each week to promote class discussions and to undertake laboratory and field-based investigations using maps, rocks and minerals, computational techniques, scientific writing and poster presentations. This course is appropriate for those students curious about their natural world who enjoy spending time outdoors. Laboratory course credit. (GE5a) Knapp.

Geology 197 (3) - Topics: Weather and Climate - topical description - A survey of weather and climate, including the physical properties of air, earth-sun relationships, planetary circulation, storms, weather forecasting, and human-climate interactions. Szramek.

German (GERM)

German 321 (3) - Introduction to German Short Fiction - topical description - Prerequisites: German 262 and permission of the instructor. This course is intended as a first or second course in German literature. Among the authors treated are Storm, Hauptmann, Hesse, Kafka, Boell, and Duerrenmatt. All readings are in German. (GE3) Follo.

Greek (GR)

Greek 309 (3) - Greek Prose Composition - newly scheduled course - Prerequisite: Greek 202 or permission of the instructor. This course offers a review of Greek grammar, an introduction to some finer points of syntax, and a comparative review of literary styles in ancient Greek prose. Students hone their language and literary skills by composing passages in ancient Greek, in the various styles of selected ancient authors. The course also serves as an introduction to the artistry of literary prose in ancient Greek. (HL, GE3) Crotty.

History (HIST)

History 158 (3) - Tropical African Quandary, 19th and 20th Centuries - topical description - Seminar on Tropical Africa: 19th and 20th century quandaries for Freshmen and Sophomores. (GE4b) Porter.

History 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Natural Disasters in the Americas - topical description - This seminar examines the history of natural disasters in Latin America and the United States. But why study disasters? First, natural disasters literally open up societies, allowing us to peer into areas and worlds that we might not see in day-to-day life. Just as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 brought us into homes and communities that we don’t normally encounter, the Lima earthquake of 1746 takes us into the residences and even the bedrooms of the rich and poor—areas that historical records usually neglect. Second, natural disasters don’t just open up physical places; they also illuminate spiritual and mental worlds, offering a window on how people viewed life and death, and how they understood religion, nature, science, and technology. Lastly, disasters transformed both physical and mental worlds. They shaped urban planning, agriculture, and the economy, and even made regimes totter or retrench. Disaster studies thus generate several questions that we tackle in this course: Are disasters “natural” or human-induced? How have disasters—and reactions to them—changed over time? Are there differences in reactions to disasters in Latin America and the United States? What are the social and political forces that push people to live in dangerous places? How have different generations of writers, filmmakers, and the media presented disasters? As a seminar, this course emphasizes intensive readings and several short papers to foster lively discussion about hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, climate, fire, and volcanoes in the history of the Americas. Additionally, students research the historical contexts, and then share their work with the class, of the most recent and most raw natural disaster in the Americas—Hurricane Katrina. (GE4b) Carey.

History 195 (3) - The Great War and Modernist Culture - topical description - This introductory level reading and discussion seminar will explore the impact of the First World War on European society and culture.  Topics include the experience of trench warfare, the unprecedented mobilization of women workers on the home front, the process of disillusionment with traditional values and authority figures, the birth of the Communist International, and the impact of the Great War on the literary and artistic avant-garde. (GE4b) Patch.

History 322 (3) - Seminar in Russian History: The KGB - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Completion of History 321 (Soviet Russia) is recommended but not required. This seminar makes use of declassified materials from Russian archives to analyze the functioning of the Soviet secret police from 1917 to 1991 both within the Soviet Union and abroad. Class meetings are devoted to discussions of assigned primary and secondary sources (in English), and students write a research paper on a topic of their choice related to the seminar's themes. (GE4b) Bidlack.

History 367 (3) - Seminar: History of Terrorism - topical description - Terrorism is a form of collective violence famously illustrated in the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington on September 11, 2001. This course provides a selective survey of the origins and evolution of terrorist organizations and their violence. Since large-scale, lethal terrorist actions involving attacks on civilians are relatively recent historically, special emphasis is placed upon the phenomenon in the 20th and 21st centuries. Much of the course focuses on the social divisions and conflicts that lead to terrorism and its increasingly lethal nature over time. Topics include "old terrorism" (as seen in Northern Ireland and Algeria), "new terrorism" (such as that associated with Al Qaeda), and the nature of and spread of weapons of mass destruction. (GE4b) Senechal.

History 369A (3) - The Civil Rights Movement - topical description - An intensive survey of the struggle for full civil rights in the United States.  We will examine issues such a school desegregation, open housing, non-violent civil disobedience, the white backlash, affirmative action, black power, reverse discrimination, and the rise of the Black Power Movement.  This course also focuses on major figures such as Ella Baker, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, George Wallace, Ross Barnett, and Lyndon Baines Johnson.  (GE4b) DeLaney.

History 369B (3) - Seminar: I Love the 70s - topical description - Saturday Night Fever. Gloria Gaynor. Bell Bottoms. The Pet Rock. For decades, the 1970s has been remembered best as a "wasted Decade" memorable only for fashion missteps, vapid dance music, and political disengagement. After the cultural and political ferment of the 1960s and before the material culture of the 1980s, the 1970s have often been seen as the most forgettable of decades. This course takes a critical second look at the 1970s, as a critical and transformative period in contemporary American history. Discussion topics will range from the New York Dolls to Phyllis Schlaffley, from the "silent majority" and Richard Nixon to Jonestown and Jonathan Livingston Seagull, from the "stagflation" crisis to the rise and fall of disco. Examining a variety of texts, including movies, television, popular music, legislation and social movements, this course elucidates the still-powerful influence of the 1970s on contemporary American politics, culture, and society. (GE4b) Michelmore.

Interdepartmental (INTR)

Interdepartmental 296 (3), India: Culture and Society - topical description - Taught in India. Corequisite: University Scholars 201. Students study several aspects of Indian society, including an overview of traditional and contemporary social structures, political and economic development issues, and a special focus on issues of healthcare and society. In addition to W&L faculty involved, approximately 50% of lectures and visits are lead or team-taught with area experts, including the former director general of the Archeological Survey of India , a university sociologist with specialties in gender and development issues, and a medical doctor with special involvement in poverty and social development projects in the region. (GE6d) Lubin and Desjardins.

Italian (ITAL)

Japanese (JAPN)

Journalism (JOUR)

Journalism 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Religion, Culture, and the Global Media - topical description -  The sex-abuse scandals in the Roman Catholic Church, the consecration of a gay bishop in an Episcopal diocese, the Ten Commandments monument in the Alabama Supreme Court building, the protests over the cartoon drawing of the Prophet Mohammed, controversies over stem-cell research and evolution, English-language broadcasts of Al Jazeera, and struggles over the constitutionality of "faith-based initiatives"—these are only the latest ways that religion has emerged into public debate. And that debate is conducted through the media—the primary location of local, national, and global discourse. Values, symbols and ideas—whether religious, social, political, or cultural—are shaped and shared through the words and images of the media. The goal of this course is to understand the role of the global media as guarantors of public discourse, in supporting, questioning, negating, or shaping the place of religion in public discourse. This course provides students with an overview of global mass media (both entertainment and news) as cultural institutions that use and are used by other cultural institutions, such as religion, in their efforts to adjust to the processes of globalization. We investigate the role of the global media in addressing the issues of religious pluralism, multiculturalism, and citizenship. We focus on the impact of old and new technologies of communication—including rock videos, political rhetoric, books, films, and the Internet—on the ability of the institutions of religion to influence and mobilize geographically isolated groups. As we explore the ways in which the global media compete as mythmakers with traditional institutions, we are better able to understand the increasingly global and multidimensional relationships between the institutions of media and religion.(GE4 as credit but not for one of the areas) Abah.

Journalism 295A (3) - Public-Service Media - topical description - Service learning course. Open to non-majors. Concepts and practices of communication for non-profit organizations. Students work with local agencies to produce materials for Web, broadcast, and print. Artwick.

Journalism 295B (3) - Special Topics in Journalism: The Changing Face of Chinese Journalism - topical description - Corequisite: Business Administration 391. Taught in China. China is an awakening giant. The 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing will shine a bright light on the country’s remarkable transformation from the days of strict Communist rule. After a week on campus, students spend five weeks in this ancient country, learning about the relationship between China's emerging businesses and its journalistic community, which is increasingly independent yet far from free. We begin in Shanghai - the country’s financial capital - and travel to Hangzhou, Wuhan and Beijing. Traditional classroom studies are interspersed with field trips, guest speakers, a boat trip on the Yangtze River, and cultural activities. We visit businesses, witness the country's startling economic growth, meet with Chinese and Western journalists, and gain a greater understanding of the differences and similarities between our societies. Luecke.

Journalism 295C (3) - Special Topics in Journalism: War Correspondents - topical description - This course is a critical in-depth study of people writing and reporting during wars from the Spanish Revolution through to the current War in the Middle East. Appropriate for non-majors. de Maria.

Journalism 377 (3) - Media Management. Taught in Spring 2007 the Reynolds Distinguished Visiting Professor, Richard J. Simmons, retired CEO of the Washington Post Co. and The International Herald Tribune.

Latin (LATN)

Literature in Translation (LIT)

Literature in Translation 204 (Classics 204 ) (3) -  Freshman Seminar: Augustan Rome - topical description -  Through readings and discussion, we examine the Roman world during the lifetime of Octavian, known to us as the emperor Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.). This period was pivotal in the shaping of what became the Roman Empire, and, consequently, in the shaping of Western Europe. The great innovations and achievements of the Augustan period have left an indelible mark on every aspect of subsequent western life, including literature, art, architecture, legal institutions, religions, philosophy, political propaganda, etc. We approach our study of this period by reading a selection of historical sources, including Plutarch and Suetonius, then a representative selection of the most influential poetry of the period, including Virgil’s Aeneid and Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and finally, by surveying art, architecture, and religious practice. We always draw on and connect evidence of various kinds in order to illustrate the use of an interdisciplinary approach in studying an ancient society. Where possible, we concentrate on ancient sources, since our aim will not be so much to learn what modern authors have said in summarizing this period, as much as to use the ancient evidence to resurrect its complexity. (GE3) Carlisle.

Literature in Translation 295A (3) - German Literature in Translation: Max Sebald, Master of Melancholy - topical description - Sebald was a 20th-century author (1944-2001). Readings in this course include his prose poem "After Nature," the novel Vertigo, and the lecture series published as "The Natural History of Destruction." Sebald challenges all readers; his works lead in many directions, whether it be the 16th-century German painter Grünewald, the Peasants' Rebellion of the 15th and 16th centuries, several stories by Franz Kafka, and the history of World War II and the destruction of 131 German cities by Allied bombing. (GE3) Dickens.

Literature in Translation 295B (3) - Living by the Code: Honor in Love and War in the Literature of the High Middle Ages - topical description - This course focuses on the ways in which representative works of the period (1100 - 1250) construct and critique codes of honor and courtly conduct, notions of the heroic ideal, of chivalry, courtly love and the courtly lady, and the quest for salvation. We read masterpieces of medieval literature from the predominant genres of the era: the heroic epic (Nibelungenlied), troubadour and Minnesang lyric, the tales of Marie de France, the Arthurian romance (Chretien de Troyes), and Gottfried's Tristan.  (GE3) Prager.

Literature in Translation 295C (3) - The Japanese Supernatural - topical description - From the earliest times to the present, animals masquerading as humans, mountain priests working miracles through prayer, vengeful ghosts, and all manner of unusual phenomena have played prominent roles in Japanese literature. Elements of the supernatural cut across class lines, appealing to commoner and noble alike, as well as across time, with common themes appearing in Buddhist parables of a thousand years ago and modern Japanese film less than a decade old. This class examines the major threads of the supernatural in Japanese literature, theater, and film; explores their continuity and change from ancient times to the present; and attempts to find reasons for the enduring appeal of the supernatural in our current, supposedly rational age. (GE3) Robinson.

Literature in Translation 295D (3) - Introduction to the "Francophone" Novel - topical description - This course introduces students to novels written by authors from countries or regions once colonized by France. Through selected texts of writers from Africa, the Caribbean, and Canada, students get a broad understanding of the historical, social, cultural, and political conditions of countries that are still influenced by their former colonial masters. Works by the following authors are included:  Jacques Roumain, Joseph Zobel, Maryse Condé, Camara Laye, Boubacar Boris Diop, and Gabrielle Roy. (GE3) Fralin and Kamara.

Mathematics (MATH)

Mathematic 195 (3) - Financial Math - topical description - Prerequisite: Mathematics 102, although some knowledge of basic finance (such as determining present value of cash flows) would be helpful. In this course students study derivatives markets, forwards, call and put options, short and long positions, futures, and other topics in financial mathematics. Dresden.

Medieval and Renaissance Studies (MRST)

Medieval and Renaissance Studies 395 (3) - Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Studies: Renaissance Lives in Film - topical description - Prerequisite: One course in Medieval and Renaissance Studies or permission of the instructor. In this seminar, we use the medium of film, supplemented by relevant short readings, to examine in depth the characters and characteristics of daily life in Early Modern Europe. From mob to monarch, the films allow us to better detail the beliefs, the institutions, and the social structures that formed, informed, and, at times ,deformed Medieval and Renaissance life and lives. Representative weekly themes may include Wonder Women such as Elizabeth I and Joan of Arc and the Ghostly Grail of Excalibur and Monty Python's Search. Course work includes oral and written reports and a final portfolio/manuscript. (GE4 as credits but not for a specific area) Campbell.

Military Science (MS)

Students interested in Army ROTC should check with University Registrar Scott Dittman or contact the ROTC unit at Virginia Military Institute. Students who are pursuing an Army commission should register for the W&L placeholder courses labeled as MS at the appropriate level each term, and should also register through the ROTC unit for the appropriate VMI courses. Such courses count as transfer credits and, thus, are in addition to the required minimum full-time load at W&L each term. (That is, you must carry 12 credits in the fall and winter in addition to your VMI ROTC registration.

Music (MUS)

Music 180 (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Human Voice: Science and Sound - topical description -  This seminar is designed to explore the entirety of the human voice. Through readings, demonstrations, experimental methods, guest lectures, and class discussions, we explore the physiologic and acoustical properties of the voice. Our internal study reveals the anatomy, physiology, and physics that serve to operate this natural instrument. Our external study includes analyses of acoustics, resonance, and voice types through the recorded voice of famous classical and contemporary singers, live performances by guest artists in the Wilson Concert Hall, and private spectrograph analysis of each student’s speaking or singing voice. Readings that feature conflicting viewpoints spur class discussions, individual research topics, and issues for group presentations. This exploration of the human voice is designed especially for those interested in public speaking, pre-medical studies, physics, or singing. This course is open to all freshmen; no class member is required to sing.(GE4a) Myers.

Music 396 (3) - Seminar in Music: The Piano: Music and Performance - topical description - Pre-requisite:  Music 120 or the permission of the instructor. This course is open to all students.  There is no requirement to read music or to play the piano, although these skills are welcome. A sampling of the wide range of piano music and a study of the great  performers of this repertoire.  Emphasis is placed on the music and interpreters of Chopin, Liszt, and Rachmaninoff. The focus is on listening to music and the understanding of style and interpretation. (GE4a) Gaylard.

Music 397 (3) - Creating Music in the Digital Age - topical description - Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Limited to 12 students. A comprehensive survey of leading music software to include notation, audio editing, and mixing. Vosbein, Graham Spice.

Neuroscience (NEUR)

Neuroscience 395A (3) - Topics in Neuroendocrinology - topical description - Students may not also take Biology 397. Prerequisites: Biology 220, junior standing and permission of the instructor. The study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, with special reference to regulation and communication in the mammal. This term's topic begins with some of the classical papers that are the foundations of this field. We then focus on current research in the neuroendocrinology of pregnancy, parturition, lactation, and maternal behavior. Gibber.

Neuroscience 395B (3) - Topics The  Sense of Smell - topical description - This course surveys what we know about the sense of smell. It concentrates on how humans perceive and use odors, and it also include information about the anatomy and physiology of the olfactory system. Topics include perfume and attraction, food and flavor, functional fragrances, pheromones, and social and cultural differences in odor perception and use. Lorig.

Philosophy (PHIL)

Philosophy 195A (3) -  Freshman Seminar: The Concept of Honor for Freshmen - topical description -  What is honor? It lies at the heart of Washington and Lee's values, yet its hold on the wider American society is tenuous, and its meaning may seem unclear to many, not least to students struggling to comprehend a revered honor system. This course seeks to explore the concept of personal honor in historical and philosophical context. We examine some key moments in this concept's development from ancient Greece to our own times, exploring a variety of philosophical perplexities along the way. We read literary texts such as the Iliad, Gawain and the Green Knight, and To Kill a Mockingbird, and view a variety of films, from The Good Shepherd and Troy to The Adventures of Robin Hood and Glory--each of which casts different lights on honor. In the last week of the course, we focus on Washington and Lee's own honor system, in order to clarify and deepen our own sense of local personal honor. Students learn from lectures by invited speakers and centrally participate in seminar discussion on the texts and films and the issues they raise. The course's central philosophical question is this: how can honor, born and reared in hierarchical, patriarchal, warrior societies, live or even thrive in a more egalitarian and peaceful home, such as Washington and Lee in the 21st Century? (GE4c) Sessions.

Philosophy 195B (3) - The Concept of Honor - topical description -  What is honor? It lies at the heart of Washington and Lee's values, yet its hold on the wider American society is tenuous, and its meaning may seem unclear to many, not least to students struggling to comprehend a revered honor system. This course seeks to explore the concept of personal honor in historical and philosophical context. We examine some key moments in this concept's development from ancient Greece to our own times, exploring a variety of philosophical perplexities along the way. We read literary texts such as the Iliad, Gawain and the Green Knight, and To Kill a Mockingbird, and view a variety of films, from The Good Shepherd and Troy to The Adventures of Robin Hood and Glory--each of which casts different lights on honor. In the last week of the course, we focus on Washington and Lee's own honor system, in order to clarify and deepen our own sense of local personal honor. Students learn from lectures by invited speakers and centrally participate in seminar discussion on the texts and films and the issues they raise. The course's central philosophical question is this: how can honor, born and reared in hierarchical, patriarchal, warrior societies, live or even thrive in a more egalitarian and peaceful home, such as Washington and Lee in the 21st Century? (GE4c) Sessions.

Philosophy 195C (3) - Philosophy of Economics - topical description - Thomas Carlyle famously referred to economics as the "dismal science, but, one might wonder, must economic predictions be dismal? And more importantly, are they scientific? To answer these questions one must investigate the underlying philosophical assumptions of the discipline. For example, the "dismal" aspect of economics seems to come from the notion of human nature as fundamentally competitive and self-interested. But, do economists make this assumption? Do they have to? Similarly, the scientific nature of economics appears to come from its use of mathematical models and equations. But what makes these models scientific and what does it mean to draw scientific conclusions from them? Also, economics is perceived by some as being value-free. Is this true, and if it is, does that make economics scientific? Though this is not a course in the history of economic thought, the class explores these questions by examining writings from notable economic thinkers of the past such as Smith, Ricardo, Marx, Jevons, Menger, and Keynes. In addition, the class reads articles by contemporary philosophers of economics that explore these questions. The course is designed to be an introduction to philosophy through the particular questions that can be raised about the metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics of economics. As such, it presumes no background in philosophy. (GE4c) Terjesen.

Philosophy 207 (3) - Aesthetics - expanded description - What counts as art, and why do we value it? What are the differences between art and science, and how are they similar? Is our appreciation of works of art influenced by ethical considerations? Can we argue about, and reach agreement on, what makes a work of art good? If so, how is this process different from or similar to our argumentation about factual matters and moral matters? If not, is our aesthetic experience anything more than just a series of grunts and groans? Aesthetics is the philosophical examination of such questions and problems relating to our experience of works of art and natural beauty. This course provides an overview of the field and an introduction to its subject matter and methods of inquiry. We examine various classical theories of what makes art works valuable and discuss contemporary theories of the nature of art and our aesthetic experience of nature. Classroom activities consist of lecture, discussion, and online presentations of course materials. Readings are taken from classical and contemporary theories. Students write a short paper, give an oral presentation, and participate in a course blog. (GE4c) Lambert.

Philosophy 395A (3) - Advanced Seminar: John Stuart Mill - topical description - Are liberty and individuality absolutely crucial to human happiness? Are we morally obligated to conduct our lives in ways that maximize the greatest aggregate happiness? Should women and men have equal rights and opportunities? How can we combine the benefits of capitalism (higher productivity and innovation) with the benefits of socialism (avoiding poverty and exploitation)? Is it more important to fill your head with knowledge or your heart with love? Mill has answers! (GE4c) M. Bell.

Philosophy 395B (3) - Advanced Seminar: W. V. Quine: Meaning, Knowledge, and Reality - topical description - Willard Van Orman Quine is one of the 20th century’s most important, most systematic, most controversial, and most misunderstood philosophers. His seminal article "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" (1950/51), considered one of the most important articles of the last century, has been reprinted, translated, and written about more than any other short piece ever. We focus on four main areas of Quine’s philosophy. Meaning: his rejection of the analytic/synthetic distinction in favor of holism; and his rejection of the very concept of meaning through his thesis of the indeterminacy of translation. Knowledge: his rejection of the a priori/a posteriori distinction in favor of holism, his rejection of traditional rationalism and empiricism in favor of a radical naturalistic epistemology. Reality: his deflationary theory of truth, his ontological relativity, his view that only the structure of theory is important, his metaphysical realism. Naturalism: this is the key to understanding how all these apparently absurd and disparate elements fit together (or fall apart), but some think it signals the death of philosophy. (GE4c) Gregory.

Physical Education (PE)

Physical Education - IMPORTANT -- Read the instructions for PE registration at
registrar.wlu.edu/registration/regpe.htm


and the departmental information at
athletics.wlu.edu/physical_education/

Students may express a preference for up to three skills courses as part of web registration. These preferences will be examined after the academic schedule is set and, if open and not in conflict with the academic courses, one may be placed in the schedule. Changes or additional sections may still be handled during the drop/add period.

The following Physical Education ‑ courses have an additional charge, billed to the student's account after registration: PE 170: Horsemanship, PE 178: Ballet, PE 179: Modern Dance, and PE 195C: Outdoor Activity - Scuba.

Physics (PHYS)

Physics 115 (3) - Apples and Anti‑Apples: Physics for the Non‑Scientist - newly scheduled course - A conceptual overview of the fundamental ideas of modern physics. This non‑laboratory course presents the essential concepts and philosophical and ethical aspects of the most important developments in modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, relativity, particle physics and statistical physics. Discusses the impact of these concepts on our continuous efforts to understand the universe. Algebra and geometry are used but no calculus. (GE5c) Mazilu.

Politics (POL)

Politics 295A (3) - Special Topics: Politics and Film - topical description - No prerequisites.  Open to majors and non-majors of all classes. Recommended for students interested in film studies, political dynamics, Russian area studies. May be used as elective credit in the politics major, specifically toward meeting the global politics field requirement. This is an interdisciplinary study using feature film and related works (propaganda posters and music) to explain the dynamics or process of change in political entities such as social movements. This term we emphasize how Russian cinema helps explain the life cycle of communism, from underground organization through world power to social-democratic opposition. Grading based on class discussion and essays. C. McCaughrin (Politics), G. McCaughrin (Russian).

Politics 295B (3) - The European Union - topical description - This course examines the origins, institutionalization, external relations, and future of European integration. Attention is given to the evolution of the European idea, EU institutions, the rationale and failure of an EU constitution, the forging of an EU foreign and defense policy, the EU's eastward enlargement, and the U.S. role and stake in a unified Europe. Thompson.

Politics 295C (3) - Biopolitics and Biopolicy - topical description - A survey of policy problems arising from advances in microbiology and genetics, particularly including human cloning, reproductive technologies, genetically modified organisms, forensic DNA, behavioral genetics, patenting genetic material, genetic medicine, and genetic counseling. This course is open to all students, particularly students in the life sciences. Harris.

Politics 295D (3) - The Pacific Basin in International Affairs - topical description - This course introduces, in historical context, the diplomatic, economic, and strategic dimensions of the Pacific Basin: East Asia/Southeast Asia/Pacific. Key current issues such as energy and terrorism are a focus. The foreign policies of major powers - China, Russia, Japan, United States - toward the region are explored and assessed. The foreign policies of other significant regional players - India, Indonesia, Australia - and economic groupings such as ASEAN are also explored and assessed. Kiracofe.

Politics 295E (3) - International Political Economy - topical description - This course provides an intermediate-level introduction to the major actors, questions, and theories in the field of international political economy (IPE). We discuss political and economic interactions in the areas of international trade, fiscal and monetary policy, and exchange rates. We also discuss globalization in historical and contemporary perspectives. The course further examines the international politics of the major intergovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, states, and other institutional actors. Dickovick.

Politics 390 (3) - The Politics of Masculine Power - topical description - Prerequisite: One 100-level politics course or permission of the instructor. One Contemporary power theorists have devoted tremendous energies to explaining why discursive structures, social practices, and social, economic, and political institutions constrain the power of women and members of minority races and ethnic groups. By implication, these theorists suggest that male members of the dominant race are empowered by the ideology and practices of a certain kind of masculinity. But exactly how is masculinity converted into power, and under what conditions? Are there costs to masculine power? How and by whom are they paid? And is it possible that what constitutes power for some men is actually disabling for other men? This course uses readings from both the classics of power theory and the new field of men’s studies to explore these questions. Students also conduct field work in our local community, with its rich history as a refuge for and producer of prototypical male leaders. Le Blanc

Politics 392 (3) - Issues in Asian Politics - Cancelled

Politics 396 (3) - A Course About Nothing - topical description - No prerequisites. This course examines our on-going fascination with the Nothing: voids, space, vacuums, dark holes, zero, dark matter, dark energy, anti-matter, nihilism, Eastern religions, transcendence or evacuation of self, denial of soul, and chiefly the absence created by the so-called "Death of God." We situate our examination in the context of the on-going debate between science and theology. For all of their differences, new developments in science and theology seem to point to a new understanding of the human situation as emerging from within a mysterious and cosmic nothing. Are we at the threshold of a new metaphysics of darkness that can embrace both the claims of science and of theology? Is the vociferousness of the debate as much about the distance between science and theology as it is about the proximity? With the aid of several guest speakers, this course tackles Thomas Altizer's The Gospel of Christian Atheism, Shakespeare's King Lear, Kierkegaard's Philosophical Fragments, Nietzsche's The Anti-Christ, the neurosciences account of consciousness, and the affinities among and between Buddhism, neurosciences, and sub-atomic physics (including a visit to a Buddhist temple). We conclude with manifestations of the new creative and scientific darkness in popular culture, principally ABC's hit television series, Lost. Velásquez.

Portuguese (PORT)

Poverty and Human Capability (POV)

Students interested in Poverty and Human Capability Studies should plan to take Interdepartmental 101 (3), Introduction to Poverty and Human Capability, in the spring. This course meets the requirement for credits (but not for one of the two areas) under GE 4. A list of courses from other departments that qualify for the Poverty and Human Capability Studies transcript recognition appear on the program Web site: http://shepherd.wlu.edu/ .

Psychology (PSYC)

Public Speaking (PSPK)

Religion (REL)

Religion 195 (3) - Visionary and Mystical Traditions in Christianity - topical description - A study of the visionary and mystical traditions in Christianity from their roots in Jewish and Christian scriptures to their expressions in contemporary culture. Special attention is given to tensions between elite and popular, institutionally sanctioned and non-sanctioned expressions of mysticism, and to the tension inherent in visionary and mystical traditions between activism and world withdrawal, ethics and contemplation. Readings include texts by and about religious visionaries from antiquity to the present (e.g., John of Patmos, St. Paul, the Desert Fathers, Dionysius, Bernard of Clairveaux, Hildegaard von Bingen, Therese of Lisieux, Simone Weil and Flannery O’Connor and Thomas Merton) and critical studies of such persons and their work. Can serve as an introduction to the Christian tradition. (GE4) Brown.

Religion 295A (3) - Place, Space, and the Sacred - topical description - In today’s highly networked, global culture that moves through space constantly and at ever increasing speeds, the places of life are changing: forests become shopping malls, temples become tourist attractions, footpaths are superhighways, the home where you live is not just local but a node in the global web. What does it mean to inhabit this space? Are there sacred places that help us find orientation in the placeless space of contemporary life? What makes a place sacred? How are today's sacred places different from sacred places of others? Through consideration of literary, philosophical, theological, and artistic works, this course aims to understand what makes a place sacred, what might be the sacred places of contemporary life, and how these sacred places compare to those of the past. (GE4)
Kosky.

Religion 295B (3) - Land in Lakota Religion, Culture, and History - topical description - Corequisite: University Scholars 203. Combining classroom studies and field research, this seminar focuses on the religious, cultural, and historical dimensions of the Lakota Sioux's ties to their lands. Specific themes addressed include: 1) Lakota Lands, Culture, and Cosmology; 2) Lakota Lands, Subsistence, and Ceremony; and 3) Land in Lakota History: Alienation, Accommodation, and Revitalization. During the first two weeks, the class explores various ways relationships among land, culture, and religion found expression in pre-reservation Lakota communities. We next examine how the Lakota's confinement on reservations fundamentally challenged and altered these relationships. Finally, we consider selected ways in which present-day Lakotas are drawing upon traditional spirituality, ecological knowledge, and social institutions to revitalize their communities. At this time, seminar participants also begin research on term essays that examine selected topics concerning continuities and changes in Lakota-land relationships. The second two weeks comprise a field trip in which the class visits and works at sites that are of major spiritual, cultural, and historical significance to Lakotas. We also have the opportunity to hear representatives from tribal social-service organizations describe ongoing economic and social programs and initiatives. During fifth week, participants continue to research and write terms essays that are shared as oral presentations in week six. (GE4d) Markowitz.

Russian (RUSS)

Russian Area Studies (RAS)

Sociology (SOC)

Sociology 274 (3) ‑ Sociology of Literature - newly scheduled course - Prerequisite: Anthropology 101, Sociology 102, or permission of the instructor. This seminar introduces students to the field of the sociology of literature. After surveying a number of the classic problems of the field, the course focuses on several sociological theories of the emergence and development of the novel. In addition to reading theorists such as Benedict Anderson, Pierre Bourdieu, Wendy Griswold, Michael McKeon, and Ian Watt, among others, there is a sociological reading of several classic novels (for example, by Cervantes, Defoe, Austen, and Flaubert, among others). Eastwood.

Spanish (SPAN)

Spanish 295 (3) - Special Topics in Conversation: La Prensa - topical description - Prerequisite: One 200-level Spanish class. An intensive examination of the Hispanic press. Students research and report on significant issues of interest in newspapers, radio, and television broadcasts from Spain and Spanish-American countries. We focus primarily on current events in Hispanic countries as reported in major newspapers available on the Internet. Barnett

Spanish 396 (3) - 20th-Century Latin American Theater: Great Scripts - topical description - Prerequisites: Spanish 207 and 215. This course provides a panoramic view of the theater in Latin America during the 20th century. The plays are studied in relation to their historical, social and cultural contexts.  However, the focus is also on the plays as dramatic texts. In order to develop this objective, students are expected to participate in dramatic activities such as improvisations based on situations taken from the plays and dramatic reading. Some memorization and the presentations of scenes from plays are required. The course readings include authors whose works represent different trends in Latin American Theater, such us Roberto Arlt, Jorge Díaz, Griselda Gambaro, Emilio Carballido, and Sabina Berman among others. Botta

Theater (THTR)

Theater 290 (3) - Topics in Performing Arts: Motion Picture Screenwriting - topical description - Prerequisite: Three credits in theater or permission of the instructor. This course focuses on the evolution of writing for film and the basic techniques of modern writing for visual media. Through the analysis of classic screenplays and films and the study of screenwriting techniques, students explore creative writing for modern motion pictures and write an original 20-minute screenplay. (GE4) Dean

University Scholars (UNIV)

University Scholars 201 (3) - Science, Religion, and Well‑Being: Health and Healthcare in South Asia - topical description - Taught in India. Corequisite: Interdepartmental 296. Students receive an overview of Indian history, culture and religion, with special attention to history of science topics and comparative approaches to medicine and healing, especially as these relate to culture and religion. Outside speakers and numerous field visits. (GE4d) Lubin and Desjardins

University Scholars 202 (3) and Art 380A (3) - Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Paintings - topical description - No prerequisites. Permission of the instructor required. The two courses are corequisites of each other. This six-credit, study-abroad experience develops students' fundamental understanding of certain physical, chemical, biological, and geological concepts and utilizes that vocabulary and knowledge to discuss 17th-century Dutch Art. The first half of the course involving the scientific and technical background takes place in Lexington; the second half, involving the art history, politics, religion, economics, etc., meets at the Center for European Studies (CES) Universiteit Maastricht and includes trips to museums, cathedrals, and other sites in Amsterdam, The Hague, Delft, Haarlem, and Rotterdam. The emphasis is on key aspects of optics, light, and chemical bonding needed to understand how a painting "works" and how art conservators analyze paintings in terms of conservation and authenticity using various scientific techniques (radiography, microscopy, spectroscopy, chromatography, etc.). When possible, the course develops modern notions of science with those of the 17th century in order to see how science influenced art. Students are graded, in the first half, on three or four tests; in the second half two research projects involving one paper and two Powerpoint presentations are the basis for grades. Though the working language at CES Maastricht is English, students learn key phrases in Dutch and practice the manners and customs of The Netherlands. (GE5c and GE4a) Uffelman.

University Scholars 203 (3) - Land in Lakota Religion, Culture, and History - topical description - Corequisite: Religion 295B. Combining classroom studies and field research, this seminar focuses on the religious, cultural, and historical dimensions of the Lakota Sioux's ties to their lands. Specific themes addressed include: 1) Lakota Lands, Culture, and Cosmology; 2) Lakota Lands, Subsistence, and Ceremony; and 3) Land in Lakota History: Alienation, Accommodation, and Revitalization. During the first two weeks, the class explores various ways relationships among land, culture, and religion found expression in pre-reservation Lakota communities. We next examine how the Lakota's confinement on reservations fundamentally challenged and altered these relationships. Finally, we consider selected ways in which present-day Lakotas are drawing upon traditional spirituality, ecological knowledge, and social institutions to revitalize their communities. At this time, seminar participants also begin research on term essays that examine selected topics concerning continuities and changes in Lakota-land relationships. The second two weeks comprise a field trip in which the class visits and works at sites that are of major spiritual, cultural, and historical significance to Lakotas. We also have the opportunity to hear representatives from tribal social-service organizations describe ongoing economic and social programs and initiatives. During fifth week, participants continue to research and write terms essays that are shared as oral presentations in week six. (GE6 as credits but not as an area) Markowitz

Women's Studies (WST)

Women's Studies: Students interested in Women's Studies should plan to take Interdepartmental 120 (3), Introduction to Women's Studies and Feminist Theory, in the spring. This course now meets the requirement for credits (but not for one of the two areas) under GE 4. A list of spring-term courses from other departments that qualify for Women's Studies credits appear on the program Web site: http://womensstudies.wlu.edu/ .